Now showing items 21-40 of 22428

    • Understanding Ostwald Ripening and Surface Charging Effects in Solvothermally-Prepared Metal Oxide–Carbon Anodes for High Performance Rechargeable Batteries

      Zhou, Lin; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Yingqiang; Wang, Wenxi; Ming, Hai; Sun, Qujiang; Wang, Limin; Ming, Jun; Alshareef, Husam N. (Advanced Energy Materials, Wiley, 2019-10-08) [Article]
      Metal oxides synthesized by the solvothermal approach have widespread applications, while their nanostructure control remains challenging because their reaction mechanism is still not fully understood. Herein, it is demonstrated how the competitive relation between Ostwald ripening and surface charging during solvothermal synthesis is crucial to engineering high-quality metal (oxide)–carbon nanomaterials. Using SnO2 as a case study, a new type of hollow SnO2–C hybrid nanoparticles is synthesized consisting of core–shell structured SnO2@C nanodots (which has not been previously reported). This new anode material exhibits extremely high lithium storage capacity of 1225 and 955 mAh g−1 at 200 and 500 mA g−1, respectively, and excellent cycling stability. In addition, full-battery cells are constructed combining SnO2–C anode with Ni-rich cathode, which can be charged to a higher voltage compared to commercial graphite anode and still demonstrate extraordinary rate performance. This study provides significant insight into the largely unexplored reaction mechanism during solvothermal synthesis, and demonstrates how such understanding can be used to achieve high-performance metal (oxide)–C anodes for rechargeable batteries.
    • A Novel Subdomain 2D/Q-2D Finite Element Method for Power/Ground Plate-Pair Analysis

      Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Tang, Min; Zhang, Yao Jiang; Xu, Shuai; Bagci, Hakan (IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, IEEE, 2019-10-07) [Article]
      Upon excitation by a surface magnetic current, a power/ground plate-pair supports only $\mathrm{TM}^{z}$ modes. This means that the magnetic field has only azimuthal components permitting a simple but effective domain decomposition method (DDM) to be used. In the proximity of an antipad, field interactions are rigorously modeled by a quasi-two-dimensional (Q-2D) finite element method (FEM) making use of three-dimensional (3D) triangular prism mesh elements. Since high-order $\mathrm{TM}^{z}$ modes are confined in the close proximity of the antipad, field interactions in the region away from the antipad only involve the fundamental mode and are rigorously modeled by a 2D FEM. This approach reduces 3D computation domain into a hybrid 2D/Q-2D domain. The discretization of this hybrid domain results in a global matrix system consisting of two globally coupled matrix equations pertinent to 2D and Q-2D domains. In this article, these two matrix equations are “decoupled” using a Riemann solver and the information exchange between the two domains is facilitated using numerical flux. The resulting decoupled two matrix equations are iteratively solved using the Gauss–Seidel algorithm. The accuracy, efficiency, and robustness of the proposed DDM are verified by four representative examples.
    • End-to-end Performance Analysis of Delay-sensitive Multi-relay Networks

      Makki, Behrooz; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (IEEE Communications Letters, IEEE, 2019-10-07) [Article]
      We study the end-to-end (E2E) performance of multi-relay networks in delay-constrained applications. The results are presented for both decode-and-forward (DF) and AF (A: amplify) relaying schemes. We use some fundamental results on the achievable rates of finite-length codes to analyze the system performance in the cases with short packets. Taking the message decoding delays and different numbers of hops into account, we derive closed-form expressions for the E2E packet transmission delay, the E2E error probability as well as the E2E throughput. Moreover, for different message decoding delays, we determine the appropriate codeword length and the relay power such that the same E2E error probability and packet transmission delay are achieved in the AF-and DF-relay networks. As we show, for different codeword lengths and numbers of hops, the E2E performance of multi-relay networks are affected by the message decoding delay of the nodes considerably.
    • Proteome-level assessment of origin, prevalence and function of Leucine-Aspartic Acid (LD) motifs.

      Alam, Tanvir; Alazmi, Meshari; Naser, Rayan Mohammad Mahmoud; Huser, Franceline; Momin, Afaque Ahmad Imtiyaz; Astro, Veronica; Hong, Seungbeom; Walkiewicz, Katarzyna Wiktoria; Canlas, Christian G; Huser, Raphaël; Ali, Amal J.; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Adamo, Antonio; Jaremko, Mariusz; Jaremko, Lukasz; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Gao, Xin; Arold, Stefan T. (Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-10-05) [Article]
      MOTIVATION:Leucine-aspartic acid (LD) motifs are short linear interaction motifs (SLiMs) that link paxillin family proteins to factors controlling cell adhesion, motility and survival. The existence and importance of LD motifs beyond the paxillin family is poorly understood. RESULTS:To enable a proteome-wide assessment of LD motifs, we developed an active-learning based framework (LDmotif finder; LDMF) that iteratively integrates computational predictions with experimental validation. Our analysis of the human proteome revealed a dozen new proteins containing LD motifs. We found that LD motif signalling evolved in unicellular eukaryotes more than 800 Myr ago, with paxillin and vinculin as core constituents, and nuclear export signal (NES) as a likely source of de novo LD motifs. We show that LD motif proteins form a functionally homogenous group, all being involved in cell morphogenesis and adhesion. This functional focus is recapitulated in cells by GFP-fused LD motifs, suggesting that it is intrinsic to the LD motif sequence, possibly through their effect on binding partners. Our approach elucidated the origin and dynamic adaptations of an ancestral SLiM, and can serve as a guide for the identification of other SLiMs for which only few representatives are known. AVAILABILITY:LDMF is freely available online at www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/ldmf; Source code is available at https://github.com/tanviralambd/LD/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    • Ultralong cycle stability of aqueous zinc-ion batteries with zinc vanadium oxide cathodes

      Wang, Lulu; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Jitao; Zheng, Junrong (Science Advances, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2019-10-04) [Article]
      Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage but are plagued by the lack of cathode materials with both excellent rate capability and adequate cycle life span. We overcome this barrier by designing a novel hierarchically porous structure of Zn-vanadium oxide material. This Zn0.3V2O5·1.5H2O cathode delivers a high specific capacity of 426 mA·h g−1 at 0.2 A g−1 and exhibits an unprecedented superlong-term cyclic stability with a capacity retention of 96% over 20,000 cycles at 10 A g−1. Its electrochemical mechanism is elucidated. The lattice contraction induced by zinc intercalation and the expansion caused by hydronium intercalation cancel each other and allow the lattice to remain constant during charge/discharge, favoring cyclic stability. The hierarchically porous structure provides abundant contact with electrolyte, shortens ion diffusion path, and provides cushion for relieving strain generated during electrochemical processes, facilitating both fast kinetics and long-term stability.
    • Modeling and Experimental Study of the Vibration Effects in Urban Free-Space Optical Communication Systems

      Cai, Wenqi; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem (IEEE Photonics Journal, IEEE, 2019-10-04) [Article]
      Free-space optical (FSO) communication, considered as a last-mile technology, is widely used in many urban scenarios. However, the performance of urban free-space optical (UFSO) communication systems fades in the presence of system vibration caused by many factors in the chaotic urban environment. In this paper, we develop a dedicated indoor vibration platform and atmospheric turbulence to estimate the Bifurcated-Gaussian (B-G) distribution model of the receiver optical power under different vibration levels and link distances using nonlinear iteration method. Mean square error (MSE) and coefficient of determination ($R^2$) metrics have been used to show a good agreement between the PDFs of the experimental data with the resulting B-G distribution model. Besides, the UFSO channel under the effects of both vibration and atmospheric turbulence is also explored under three atmospheric turbulence conditions. Our proposed B-G distribution model describes the vibrating UFSO channels properly and can easily help to perform and evaluate the link performance of UFSO systems, e.g., bit-error-rate (BER), outage probability. Furthermore, this work paves the way for constructing completed auxiliary control subsystems for robust UFSO links and contributes to more extensive optical communication scenarios, such as underwater optical communication, etc.
    • Barcoding Amino Acids for Mutation Screening in Amyloid Beta Peptides

      Hoang, Phuong Mai; Khashab, Niveen M. (Small Methods, Wiley, 2019-10-04) [Article]
      Amino acid (AA) substitutions are directly correlated with specific pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, making their rapid screening and detection critical to treatment and scientific study. A proof-of-concept implementation of the label-free and noninvasive Raman spectroscopy technique for the detection of AA substitutions in primary peptide fragments is demonstrated. By encoding the Raman “fingerprint” of individual AAs into binary formats called optical identification tags (OITs), a library of identifiers is created, which can then be used for detecting mutations. When the recorded Raman signal is enhanced by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate, the mutation screening strategy can detect a single point missense mutation in an 11-AA peptide fragment of amyloid beta Aβ(25–35) and a frameshift mutation in a 42-AA fragment Aβ(1–42) down to picomolar concentrations. The combination of high sensitivity and simple operation makes the use of OITs a promising approach for high-throughput automated screening.
    • Disruption of the coordination between host circadian rhythms and malaria parasite development alters the duration of the intraerythrocytic cycle

      Subudhi, Amit; O'Donnell, Aidan John; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Abkallo, Hussein M.; Kaushik, Abhinav; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Rached, Fathia Ben; Kaneko, Osamu; Culleton, Richard; Reece, Sarah E.; Pain, Arnab (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2019-10-03) [Preprint]
      Malaria parasites complete their intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in multiples of 24 hours (depending on the species), suggesting a circadian basis to the asexual cell cycle, but the mechanism controlling this periodicity is unknown. Combining in vivo and in vitro approaches using rodent and human malaria parasites, we reveal that: (i) 57% of Plasmodium chabaudi genes exhibit 24 h circadian periodicity in transcription; (ii) 58% of these genes lose transcriptional rhythmicity when the IDC is out-of-synchrony with host rhythms; (iii) 9% of Plasmodium falciparum genes show circadian transcription under free-running conditions; (iv) Serpentine receptor 10 (SR10) has a circadian transcription profile and disrupting it in rodent malaria parasites shortens the IDC by 2-3 hours; (v) Multiple processes including DNA replication and the ubiquitin and proteasome pathways are affected by loss of coordination with host rhythms and by disruption of SR10. Our results show that malaria parasites are at least partly responsible for scheduling their IDCs explaining the fitness benefits of coordination with host rhythms.
    • Can Fish and Cell Phones Teach Us about Our Health?

      Lee, Michael A; Duarte, Carlos M.; Eguíluz, V. M.; Heller, Daniel A; Langer, Robert; Meekan, Mark G; Sikes, Hadley D; Srivastava, Mani; Strano, Michael S; Wilson, Rory P (ACS sensors, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019-10-03) [Article]
      Biologging is a scientific endeavor that studies the environment and animals within it by outfitting the latter with sensors of their dynamics as they roam freely in their natural habitats. As wearable technologies advance for the monitoring of human health, it may be instructive to reflect on the successes and failures of biologging in field biology over the past few decades. Several lessons may be of value. Physiological sensors can
    • Antioxidant enzymes expression in lymphocytes of patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy

      Obradovic, Milan; Zafirovic, Sonja; Essack, Magbubah; Dimitrov, Jelena; Zivkovic, Lada; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana; Radak, Djordje; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Isenovic, Esma R. (Medical Hypotheses, Elsevier BV, 2019-10-03) [Article]
      To remedy carotid artery stenosis and prevent stroke surgical intervention is commonly used, and the gold standard being carotid endarterectomy (CEA). During CEA cerebrovascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation decreases and when this decrease reaches critical levels it leads to cerebral hypoxia that causes neuronal damage. One of the proposed mechanism that affects changes during CEA and contribute to acute brain ischemia (ABI) is oxidative stress. The increased production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species during ABI may cause an unregulated inflammatory response and further lead to structural and functional injury of neurons. Antioxidant activity are involved in the protection against neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that neuronal injury and poor outcomes in patients undergoing CEA may be results of oxidative stress that disturbed function of antioxidant enzymes and contributed to the DNA damage in lymphocytes.
    • Deciphering photocarrier dynamics for tuneable high-performance perovskite-organic semiconductor heterojunction phototransistors

      Lin, Yen-Hung; Huang, Wentao; Pattanasattayavong, Pichaya; Lim, Jongchul; Li, Ruipeng; Sakai, Nobuya; Panidi, Julianna; Hong, Min Ji; Ma, Chun; Wei, Nini; Wehbe, Nimer; Fei, Zhuping; Heeney, Martin; Labram, John G.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Snaith, Henry J. (Nature Communications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-02) [Article]
      Looking beyond energy harvesting, metal-halide perovskites offer great opportunities to revolutionise large-area photodetection technologies due to their high absorption coefficients, long diffusion lengths, low trap densities and simple processability. However, successful extraction of photocarriers from perovskites and their conversion to electrical signals remain challenging due to the interdependency of photogain and dark current density. Here we report hybrid hetero-phototransistors by integrating perovskites with organic semiconductor transistor channels to form either “straddling-gap” type-I or “staggered-gap” type-II heterojunctions. Our results show that gradual transforming from type-II to type-I heterojunctions leads to increasing and tuneable photoresponsivity with high photogain. Importantly, with a preferential edge-on molecular orientation, the type-I heterostructure results in efficient photocarrier cycling through the channel. Additionally, we propose the use of a photo-inverter circuitry to assess the phototransistors’ functionality and amplification. Our study provides important insights into photocarrier dynamics and can help realise advanced device designs with “on-demand” optoelectronic properties.
    • Tuning the Electrochemical Performance of Titanium Carbide MXene by Controllable in situ Anodic Oxidation.

      Tang, Jun; Mathis, Tyler; Kurra, Narendra; Sarycheva, Asia; Xiao, Xu; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Jiang, Qiu; Alshareef, Husam N.; Xu, Baomin; Pan, Feng; Gogotsi, Yury (Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), Wiley, 2019-10-02) [Article]
      MXenes are a class of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides that have shown promise for high-rate pseudocapacitive energy storage. However, the effects that irreversible oxidation have on the surface chemistry and electrochemical properties of MXenes are still not understood. Here we report on a controlled anodic oxidation method which improves the rate performance of titanium carbide MXene (Ti 3 C 2 T x, T x refers to -F, =O, -Cl and -OH) electrodes in acidic electrolytes. The capacitance retention at 2000 mV/s (with respect to the lowest scan rate of 5 mV/s) increases gradually from 38% to 66% by tuning the degree of anodic oxidation. At the same time, a loss in the redox behavior of Ti 3 C 2 is evident at high anodic potentials after oxidation. Several analysis methods were employed to reveal that preserving the structure and surface chemistry while simultaneously introducing defects, without compromising electrochemically active sites, are key factors for improving the rate performance of Ti 3 C 2 T x . This study demonstrates improvement of the electrochemical performance of MXene electrodes by controlling the surface chemistry and transition metal stoichiometry.
    • Study of III-nitride Nanowire Growth and Devices on Unconventional Substrates

      Prabaswara, Aditya (2019-10) [Dissertation]
      Advisor: Ooi, Boon S.
      Committee members: Ooi, Boon S.; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tchernycheva, Maria
      III-Nitride materials, which consist of AlN, GaN, InN, and their alloys have become the cornerstone of the third generation compound semiconductor. Planar IIINitride materials are commonly grown on sapphire substrates which impose several limitations such as challenging scalability, rigid substrate, and thermal and lattice mismatch between substrate and material. Semiconductor nanowires can help circumvent this problem because of their inherent capability to relieve strain and grow threading dislocation-free without strict lattice matching requirements, enabling growth on unconventional substrates. This thesis aims to investigate the microscopic characteristics of the nanowires and expand on the possibility of using transparent amorphous substrate for III-nitride nanowire devices. In this work, we performed material growth, characterization, and device fabrication of III-nitride nanowires grown using molecular beam epitaxy on unconventional substrates. We rst studied the structural imperfections within quantum-disks-in-nanowire structure grown on silicon and discovered how growth condition could a ect the macroscopic photoluminescence behavior of nanowires ensemble. To expand our work on unconventional substrates, we also used an amorphous silica-based substrate as a more economical substrate for our nanowire growth. One of the limitations of growing nanowires on an insulating substrate is the added fabrication complexity required to fabricate a working device. Therefore, we attempted to overcome this limitation by investigating various possible GaN nanowire nucleation layers, which exhibits both transparency and conductivity. We employed various nucleation layers, including a thin TiN/Ti layer, indium tin oxide (ITO), and Ti3C2 MXene. The structural, electrical, and optical characterizations of nanowires grown on di erent nucleation layers are discussed. From our work, we have established several key processes for transparent nanowire device applications. A nanowire LED emitting at 590 nm utilizing TiN/Ti interlayer is presented. We have also established the growth process for n-doped GaN nanowires grown on ITO and Ti3C2 MXene with transmittance above 40 % in the visible wavelength, which is useful for practical applications. This work paves the way for future devices utilizing low-cost substrates, enabling further cost reduction in III-nitride device fabrication.
    • Iodine-transfer polymerization and CuAAC “click” chemistry: A versatile approach toward poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based amphiphilic triblock terpolymers

      Patil, Yogesh Raghunath; Zapsas, Georgios; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos (Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Wiley, 2019-10-01) [Article]
      This study presents the synthesis and properties of linear PVDF-based amphiphilic triblock terpolymers with PS and PEO, [PVDF-b-PS-b-PEO], by adopting a procedure that involves: (a) iodine-transfer polymerization (ITP) of VDF with 1-iodoperfluorohexane (C6F13I) serving as chain-transfer agent (CTA) to afford C6F13-PVDF-I, (b) ITP of styrene with the C6F13-PVDF-I macromolecular-CTA to obtain C6F13-PVDF-b-PS-I diblock copolymer, (c) end-group exchange from iodo- to azido-group by nucleophilic substitution reaction with NaN3, and (d) copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) with alkyne-terminated PEO to achieve C6F13-PVDF-b-PS-b-PEO triblock terpolymers. The 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of all blocks, while gel permeation chromatography traces showed the living nature of ITP technique. The self-assembly of these terpolymers was investigated in films (atomic force microscopy and DSC), as well as in aqueous and organic solvents (DLS). The analysis of crystalline phases based on the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the conversion of PVDF α-phase into α + β-phases and β + γ-phases upon the incorporation of PS and PEO blocks, respectively. The synthesized amphiphilic copolymers were evaluated (fluorescence spectroscopy) as carriers of small hydrophobic molecules in water. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2019
    • A new tricrystalline triblock terpolymer by combining polyhomologation and ring-opening polymerization. synthesis and thermal properties

      Ladelta, Viko; Zapsas, Georgios; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos (Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Wiley, 2019-10-01) [Article]
      New tricrystalline triblock terpolymers, polyethylene-block-poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(L-lactide) (PE-b-PCL-b-PLLA), were synthesized by ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL) and L-lactide (LLA) from linear ω-hydroxyl polyethylene (PE-OH) macroinitiators. The linear PE-OH macroinitiators were prepared by C1 polymerization of methylsulfoxonium methylide (polyhomologation). Tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate was used as the catalyst for the sequential ROP of CL and LLA in one-pot polymerization at 85 °C in toluene (PE-OH macroinitiators are soluble in toluene at 80 °C). 1H NMR spectra confirmed the formation of PE-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers through the appearance of the characteristic proton peaks of each block. GPC traces showed the increase in the number average molecular weight from PE-OH macroinitiator to PE-b-PCL, and PE-b-PCL-b-PLLA corroborating the successful synthesis. The existence of three crystalline blocks was proved by DSC and XRD spectroscopy. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2019
    • Tunable Dual-Wavelength Self-injection Locked InGaN/GaN Green Laser Diode

      Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa (IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01) [Article]
      We implemented a tunable dual-longitudinal-mode spacing InGaN/GaN green (521–528 nm) laser diode by employing a self-injection locking scheme that is based on an external cavity configuration and utilizing either a high-or partial-reflecting mirror. A tunable longitudinal-mode spacing of 0.20 – 5.96 nm was accomplished, corresponding to a calculated frequency difference of 0.22–6.51 THz, as a result. The influence of operating current and temperature on the system performance was also investigated with a measured maximum side-mode-suppression ratio of 30.4 dB and minimum dual-mode peak optical power ratio of 0.03 dB. To shed light on the operation of the dual-wavelength device arising from the tunable longitudinal-mode spacing mechanism, the underlying physics is qualitatively described. To the best of our knowledge, this tunable longitudinal-mode-spacing dual-wavelength device is novel, and has potential applications as an alternative means in millimeter wave and THz generation, thus possibly addressing the terahertz technology gap. The dual-wavelength operation is also attractive for high-resolution imaging and broadband wireless communication.
    • Spectral-Efficiency - Illumination Pareto Front for Energy Harvesting Enabled VLC System

      Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chabaan, Anas; Shihada, Basem; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (IEEE Transactions on Communications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01) [Article]
      The continuous improvement in optical energy harvesting devices motivates the development of visible light communication systems that utilize such available free energy. In this paper, an outdoor visible light communications (VLC) system is considered where a VLC base station sends data to multiple users that are capable of harvesting optical energy. The proposed VLC system serves multiple users using time division multiple access (TDMA) with unequal time and power allocation, which are allocated to achieve the system communications and illumination objectives. In an outdoor setup, the system lighting objective is to maximize the average illumination flux, while the communication design objective is to maximize the spectral efficiency (SE). A multiobjective optimization problem is formulated to obtain the Pareto front of the SE-illumination region. To this end, the marginal optimization problems are solved first using low complexity algorithms. Then, based on the proposed algorithms, a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker-based algorithm is developed to obtain an inner bound of the Pareto front for the SE-illumination tradeoff. The inner bound for the Pareto-front is shown to be close to the optimal Pareto-frontier via several simulation scenarios for different system parameters.
    • Poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) electrode interlayers for improved n-type organic field effect transistor performance

      Nam, Sungho; de la Rosa, Victor R.; Cho, Yuljae; Hamilton, Rick; Cha, SeungNam; Hoogenboom, Richard; Bradley, Donal (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2019-10-01) [Article]
      Thin film interlayer materials inserted at the metal/semiconductor interface provide an effective means to improve charge injection and reduce the threshold voltage for organic field-effect transistors. Here, we report the use of poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) interlayers for gold electrodes within n-type poly[[N,N′-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5′-(2,2′-bithiophene)] field-effect transistors. We specifically show that the use of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) yields a reduction in the work function from 5.07 to 4.73 eV (ΔE = 0.34 eV), an increase in the electron mobility from 0.04 to 0.15 cm2/V s (3.75 times), and a reduction in the threshold voltage from 27.5 to 16.5 V (ΔV = 11 V) relative to bare gold. The alkyl side chain of the poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) has a significant influence on the film microstructure and, as a consequence, also device performance.
    • 17% Efficient Organic Solar Cells Based on Liquid Exfoliated WS2 as a Replacement for PEDOT:PSS

      Lin, Yuanbao; Adilbekova, Begimai; Firdaus, Yuliar; Yengel, Emre; Faber, Hendrik; Sajjad, Muhammad; Zheng, Xiaopeng; Yarali, Emre; Seitkhan, Akmaral; Bakr, Osman; El Labban, Abdulrahman; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Tung, Vincent; McCulloch, Iain; Laquai, Frédéric; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. (Advanced Materials, Wiley, 2019-10-01) [Article]
      The application of liquid-exfoliated 2D transition metal disulfides (TMDs) as the hole transport layers (HTLs) in nonfullerene-based organic solar cells is reported. It is shown that solution processing of few-layer WS2 or MoS2 suspensions directly onto transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes changes their work function without the need for any further treatment. HTLs comprising WS2 are found to exhibit higher uniformity on ITO than those of MoS2 and consistently yield solar cells with superior power conversion efficiency (PCE), improved fill factor (FF), enhanced short-circuit current (JSC), and lower series resistance than devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and MoS2. Cells based on the ternary bulk-heterojunction PBDB-T-2F:Y6:PC71BM with WS2 as the HTL exhibit the highest PCE of 17%, with an FF of 78%, open-circuit voltage of 0.84 V, and a JSC of 26 mA cm−2. Analysis of the cells' optical and carrier recombination characteristics indicates that the enhanced performance is most likely attributed to a combination of favorable photonic structure and reduced bimolecular recombination losses in WS2-based cells. The achieved PCE is the highest reported to date for organic solar cells comprised of 2D charge transport interlayers and highlights the potential of TMDs as inexpensive HTLs for high-efficiency organic photovoltaics.
    • An improved indirect evaporative cooler experimental investigation

      Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Oh, Seung Jin; Ng, Kim Choon (Applied Energy, Elsevier BV, 2019-10-01) [Article]
      Air conditioning has enhanced the work efficiency and improved life style by maintaining comfortable environment. The growing demand of air conditioning has negative impact on energy and environment. In 2015, air conditioning consumed 6% of total global electricity produced and it is expected to increase to 20% by 2050. The leveling-off conventional chiller’s efficiency at 0.85 ± 0.03 kW/Rton due to pairing of dehumidification and cooling processes in one machine is not only the major reason of high energy consumption but also the key limitation in efficiency improvement. The de-coupling of dehumidification and cooling processes can be one of the solution to achieve the quantum jump in the performance, 0.6 ± 0.03 kW/Rton, by improving individual processes. We proposed an improved indirect evaporative cooler system for sensible cooling that can be combined with dehumidification processes to achieve sustainable cooling goals. The experimentation on 800 mm long and 280 mm wide generic cell showed that it can produce temperature differential up to 10 °C with small area of heat transfer. It was showed that the proposed vertical heat exchanger configuration with multi point injection of working air is the best configuration of the indirect evaporative cooler, achieving coefficient of performance level of 78 for cooling alone. We expect that overall coefficient of performance level of 7–8 is achievable by incorporating efficient dehumidification processes. We also presented detailed design parameters that can be used as a reference for commercial system design.