Effect of Mechanical Pre-Treatments on Damage Mechanisms and Fracture Toughness in CFRP/Epoxy Joints

dc.contributor.authorMorano, Chiara
dc.contributor.authorTao, Ran
dc.contributor.authorAlfano, Marco
dc.contributor.authorLubineau, Gilles
dc.contributor.departmentComposite and Heterogeneous Material Analysis and Simulation Laboratory (COHMAS)
dc.contributor.departmentMechanical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, CS, Italy
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-17T11:30:59Z
dc.date.available2021-03-17T11:30:59Z
dc.date.issued2021-01
dc.description.abstractAdhesive bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) is a key enabling technology for the assembly of lightweight structures. A surface pre-treatment is necessary to remove contaminants related to material manufacturing and ensure bond reliability. The present experimental study focuses on the effect of mechanical abrasion on the damage mechanisms and fracture toughness of CFRP/epoxy joints. The CFRP plates employed in the current study were provided with a thin layer of surface epoxy matrix and featured enhanced sensitivity to surface preparation. Various degrees of morphological modification and fairly controllable carbon fibres exposure were obtained using sanding with emery paper and grit-blasting with glass particles. In the sanding process, different grit sizes of SiC paper were used, while the grit blasting treatment was carried by varying the sample-to-gun distance and the number of passes. Detailed surveys of surface topography and wettability were carried out using various methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact profilometry, and wettability measurements. Mechanical tests were performed using double cantilever beam (DCB) adhesive joints. Two surface conditions were selected for the experiments: sanded interfaces mostly made of polymer matrix and grit-blasted interfaces featuring a significant degree of exposed carbon fibers. Despite the different topographies, the selected surfaces displayed similar wettability. Besides, the adhesive joints with sanded interfaces had a smooth fracture response (steady-state crack growth). In contrast, the exposed fibers at grit-blasted interfaces enabled large-scale bridging and a significant R-curve behaviour. While it is often predicated that quality composite joints require surfaces with a high percentage of the polymer matrix, our mechanical tests show that the exposure of carbon fibers can facilitate a remarkable toughening effect. These results open up additional interesting prospects for future works concerning toughening of composite joints in automotive and aerospace applications.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research reported in this publication was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award number OSR-2017-CRG6-3388.01
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.identifier.citationTaubert, A. (2008). Welcome to Materials – a New Open Access Journal for a Growing Scientific Community. Materials, 1(1), 1–2. doi:10.3390/ma1010001
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ma1010001
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/ma14061512
dc.identifier.issn1996-1944
dc.identifier.issue1
dc.identifier.journalMaterials
dc.identifier.pages1-2
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/668113
dc.identifier.volume1
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/1/1/1
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Materials
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectCFRP
dc.subjectadhesive bonding
dc.subjectfracture toughness
dc.subjectR-curve
dc.titleEffect of Mechanical Pre-Treatments on Damage Mechanisms and Fracture Toughness in CFRP/Epoxy Joints
dc.typeArticle
display.details.left<span><h5>License</h5>https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/<br><br><h5>Type</h5>Article<br><br><h5>Authors</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Morano, Chiara,equals">Morano, Chiara</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0001-5920-3185&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Tao, Ran</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5920-3185" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Alfano, Marco,equals">Alfano, Marco</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0002-7370-6093&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Lubineau, Gilles</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7370-6093" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><br><h5>KAUST Department</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Composite and Heterogeneous Material Analysis and Simulation Laboratory (COHMAS),equals">Composite and Heterogeneous Material Analysis and Simulation Laboratory (COHMAS)</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Mechanical Engineering Program,equals">Mechanical Engineering Program</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division,equals">Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division</a><br><br><h5>KAUST Grant Number</h5>OSR-2017-CRG6-3388.01<br><br><h5>Date</h5>2021-01</span>
display.details.right<span><h5>Abstract</h5>Adhesive bonding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) is a key enabling technology for the assembly of lightweight structures. A surface pre-treatment is necessary to remove contaminants related to material manufacturing and ensure bond reliability. The present experimental study focuses on the effect of mechanical abrasion on the damage mechanisms and fracture toughness of CFRP/epoxy joints. The CFRP plates employed in the current study were provided with a thin layer of surface epoxy matrix and featured enhanced sensitivity to surface preparation. Various degrees of morphological modification and fairly controllable carbon fibres exposure were obtained using sanding with emery paper and grit-blasting with glass particles. In the sanding process, different grit sizes of SiC paper were used, while the grit blasting treatment was carried by varying the sample-to-gun distance and the number of passes. Detailed surveys of surface topography and wettability were carried out using various methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact profilometry, and wettability measurements. Mechanical tests were performed using double cantilever beam (DCB) adhesive joints. Two surface conditions were selected for the experiments: sanded interfaces mostly made of polymer matrix and grit-blasted interfaces featuring a significant degree of exposed carbon fibers. Despite the different topographies, the selected surfaces displayed similar wettability. Besides, the adhesive joints with sanded interfaces had a smooth fracture response (steady-state crack growth). In contrast, the exposed fibers at grit-blasted interfaces enabled large-scale bridging and a significant R-curve behaviour. While it is often predicated that quality composite joints require surfaces with a high percentage of the polymer matrix, our mechanical tests show that the exposure of carbon fibers can facilitate a remarkable toughening effect. These results open up additional interesting prospects for future works concerning toughening of composite joints in automotive and aerospace applications.<br><br><h5>Citation</h5>Taubert, A. (2008). Welcome to Materials – a New Open Access Journal for a Growing Scientific Community. Materials, 1(1), 1–2. doi:10.3390/ma1010001<br><br><h5>Acknowledgements</h5>The research reported in this publication was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award number OSR-2017-CRG6-3388.01<br><br><h5>Publisher</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.publisher=MDPI AG,equals">MDPI AG</a><br><br><h5>Journal</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.journal=Materials,equals">Materials</a><br><br><h5>DOI</h5><a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/ma1010001">10.3390/ma1010001</a><br><a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061512">10.3390/ma14061512</a><br><br><h5>Additional Links</h5>http://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/1/1/1</span>
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitCRG
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitOffice of Sponsored Research (OSR)
kaust.grant.numberOSR-2017-CRG6-3388.01
kaust.personTao, Ran
kaust.personLubineau, Gilles
orcid.authorMorano, Chiara
orcid.authorTao, Ran::0000-0001-5920-3185
orcid.authorAlfano, Marco
orcid.authorLubineau, Gilles::0000-0002-7370-6093
orcid.id0000-0002-7370-6093
orcid.id0000-0001-5920-3185
refterms.dateFOA2021-03-17T11:35:10Z
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