Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

dc.contributor.authorZhu, Xiuping
dc.contributor.authorYang, Wulin
dc.contributor.authorHatzell, Marta C.
dc.contributor.authorLogan, Bruce E.
dc.contributor.institutionPennsylvania State University, State College, United States
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-25T13:14:02Z
dc.date.available2016-02-25T13:14:02Z
dc.date.issued2014-06-05
dc.date.published-online2014-06-05
dc.date.published-print2014-06-17
dc.description.abstractSeveral technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe thank Weihua He for help with hydrogel preparation. This research was supported by Award KUS-I1-003-13 from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
dc.identifier.citationZhu X, Yang W, Hatzell MC, Logan BE (2014) Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels. Environ Sci Technol 48: 7157–7163. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es500909q.
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/es500909q
dc.identifier.issn0013-936X
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Science & Technology
dc.identifier.pmid24863559
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/598171
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
dc.titleEnergy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels
dc.typeArticle
display.details.left<span><h5>Type</h5>Article<br><br><h5>Authors</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Zhu, Xiuping,equals">Zhu, Xiuping</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Yang, Wulin,equals">Yang, Wulin</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Hatzell, Marta C.,equals">Hatzell, Marta C.</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Logan, Bruce E.,equals">Logan, Bruce E.</a><br><br><h5>KAUST Grant Number</h5>KUS-I1-003-13<br><br><h5>Online Publication Date</h5>2014-06-05<br><br><h5>Print Publication Date</h5>2014-06-17<br><br><h5>Date</h5>2014-06-05</span>
display.details.right<span><h5>Abstract</h5>Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.<br><br><h5>Citation</h5>Zhu X, Yang W, Hatzell MC, Logan BE (2014) Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels. Environ Sci Technol 48: 7157–7163. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es500909q.<br><br><h5>Acknowledgements</h5>We thank Weihua He for help with hydrogel preparation. This research was supported by Award KUS-I1-003-13 from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).<br><br><h5>Publisher</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.publisher=American Chemical Society (ACS),equals">American Chemical Society (ACS)</a><br><br><h5>Journal</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.journal=Environmental Science & Technology,equals">Environmental Science & Technology</a><br><br><h5>DOI</h5><a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/es500909q">10.1021/es500909q</a><br><br><h5>PubMed ID</h5><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863559">24863559</a></span>
kaust.grant.numberKUS-I1-003-13
orcid.authorZhu, Xiuping
orcid.authorYang, Wulin
orcid.authorHatzell, Marta C.
orcid.authorLogan, Bruce E.
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