Electrode metallization for scaled perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells: Challenges and opportunities

Embargo End Date


Rehman, Atteq Ur
Van Kerschaver, Emmanuel P.
Aydin, Erkan
Raja, Waseem
Allen, Thomas
De Wolf, Stefaan

KAUST Department
Advanced Semiconductor Laboratory
Bio-Ontology Research Group (BORG)
Biostatistics Group
Chemical Kinetics & Laser Sensors Laboratory
Combustion and Pyrolysis Chemistry (CPC) Group
Communication Theory Lab
Computational Electromagnetics Laboratory
Computational Imaging Group
Computational Physics and Materials Science (CPMS)
Computational Reacting Flow Laboratory (CRFL)
Computational Vision Lab
Distributed Sensing Systems Laboratory (DSS)
Earth Fluid Modeling and Prediction Group
Earth System Observation and Modelling
Environmental Biotechnology Research Group
Environmental Microbial Safety and Biotechnology Lab
Environmental Nanotechnology Lab
Environmental Statistics Group
Estimation, Modeling and ANalysis Group
Extreme Systems Microbiology Lab
Functional Materials Design, Discovery and Development (FMD3)
Functional Nanomaterials Lab (FuNL)
Functional Nanomaterials and Devices Research Group
High-Speed Fluids Imaging Laboratory
Hirt Lab
Homogeneous Catalysis Laboratory (HCL)
InfoCloud Research Group
Integrated Microwave Packaging Antennas and Circuits Technology (IMPACT) Lab
Integrated Nanotechnology Lab
Interfacial Lab
KAUST Solar Center (KSC)
Laboratory for Genome Engineering
Laboratory of DNA Replication and Recombination
Laboratory of Nano Oxides for Sustainable Energy
Machine Intelligence & kNowledge Engineering Lab
Material Science and Engineering Program
Molecular Signalling Group
Nano Energy Lab
Nanostructured Functional Materials (NFM) laboratory
Nanostructured Polymeric Membrane Lab
Networks Laboratory (NetLab)
Numerical Mathematics Group
Pathogen Genomics Laboratory
Photonics Laboratory
Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
Polymer Synthesis Laboratory
Reef Ecology Lab
Seismic Wave Analysis Group
Semiconductor and Material Spectroscopy (SMS) Laboratory
Sensors Lab
Single-Molecule Spectroscopy and Microscopy Research Group
Smart Hybrid Materials (SHMs) lab
Spatio-Temporal Statistics and Data Analysis Group
Structural Biology and Engineering
Structural and Functional Bioinformatics Group
The Salt Lab
Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy and Four-dimensional Electron Imaging Research Group
VCC Analytics Research Group
Waves in Complex Media Research Group
high-pressure combustion (HPC) Research Group


Submitted Date

Monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells have the potential to reach very high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in a cost-effective manner. In the last decade, significant technological advancements have been made for lab-scale devices (~1 cm2), with PCEs now higher than the theoretical PCE limit of single-junction silicon solar cells. For market entry of such tandems, the involved processing steps need to be scaled to industrial wafer dimensions, typically >244 cm2, which also mandates the development of adequate electrode-metallization strategies. Here we discuss challenges and opportunities related to this, including the required properties of the front metal grid for perovskite/silicon tandems, as well as key motivations and challenges in adopting screen-printed metallization, which is the current standard for mainstream silicon solar cells. We give a cost estimation for the front metal grid by considering the cost of low-temperature metal pastes that are compatible with the thermal budget limitations imposed by the perovskite top cell. We also consider opportunities to employ alternative metallization schemes that arise from the reduction in current density in tandem solar cells compared to single-junction devices. Lastly, we discuss possible routes to replace or minimize the silver content in costly silver-based metallization for industrial applications.

Rehman, A. ur, Van Kerschaver, E. P., Aydin, E., Raja, W., Allen, T. G., & De Wolf, S. (2021). Electrode metallization for scaled perovskite/silicon tandem solar cells: Challenges and opportunities. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications. doi:10.1002/pip.3499


Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications


Additional Links

Permanent link to this record