3D Concentric Electrodes-Based Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamics: Design, Simulation, Fabrication, and Potential Applications for Bioassays

Abstract
Two-dimensional concentric asymmetric microelectrodes play a crucial role in developing sensitive and specific biological assays using fluid micromixing generated by alternating current electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD). This paper reports the design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of fluid motion generated by 3D concentric microelectrodes for the first time. Electric field simulations are used to compare electric field distribution at the electrodes and to analyze its effects on microfluidic micromixing in 2D and 3D electrodes. Three-dimensional devices show higher electric field peak values, resulting in better fluid micromixing than 2D devices. As a proof of concept, we design a simple biological assay comprising specific attachment of streptavidin beads onto the biotin-modified electrodes (2D and 3D), which shows ~40% higher efficiency of capturing specific beads in the case of 3D ac-EHD device compared to the 2D device. Our results show a significant contribution toward developing 3D ac-EHD devices that can be used to create more efficient biological assays in the future.

Citation
Silva, R. K. S., Rauf, S., Dong, M., Chen, L., Bagci, H., & Salama, K. N. (2022). 3D Concentric Electrodes-Based Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamics: Design, Simulation, Fabrication, and Potential Applications for Bioassays. Biosensors, 12(4), 215. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12040215

Acknowledgements
Financial support from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. K.N. Salama would like to acknowledge the funding from AMPM center under the CCF grant and the KAUST Sensor Initiative for supporting this work. H. Bagci would like to acknowledge the funding provided by KAUST Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award 2019-CRG-4056
We want to acknowledge the KAUST Nanofabrication Core lab facility and Ulrich Buttner’s support regarding the fluorescence microscope set-up. Additionally, we would like to thank the KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory (KSL) for providing the required computational resources

Publisher
MDPI AG

Journal
Biosensors

DOI
10.3390/bios12040215

Additional Links
https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6374/12/4/215

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