Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock

dc.contributor.authorBrüwer, Jan D.
dc.contributor.authorAgrawal, Shobhit
dc.contributor.authorLiew, Yi Jin
dc.contributor.authorAranda, Manuel
dc.contributor.authorVoolstra, Christian R.
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bremen, 28359, Bremen, Germany.
dc.date.accessioned2017-08-23T11:54:06Z
dc.date.available2017-08-23T11:54:06Z
dc.date.issued2017-08-17
dc.date.published-online2017-08-17
dc.date.published-print2017-12
dc.description.abstractStony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin.Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host's antiviral response.Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.
dc.description.sponsorshipResearch reported in this publication was supported by a Science and Engineering Engagement and Development (SEED) fund (FCS/1/2449–01-01: The role of viruses in structuring the marine environment of the Red Sea) to the Red Sea Research Center at KAUST. JDB was funded by a Visiting Student Research Program (VSRP) fellowship by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The funders had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and in writing the manuscript.
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.identifier.citationBrüwer JD, Agrawal S, Liew YJ, Aranda M, Voolstra CR (2017) Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock. BMC Microbiology 17. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5.
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5
dc.identifier.issn1471-2180
dc.identifier.journalBMC Microbiology
dc.identifier.pmid28818037
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625379
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3856954.v1
dc.relation.urlhttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectHeat shock
dc.subjectVirus
dc.subjectClimate change
dc.subjectCoral reef
dc.subjectRna-seq
dc.subjectTranscriptomics
dc.subjectSymbiodinium
dc.titleAssociation of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock
dc.typeArticle
display.details.left<span><h5>License</h5>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/<br><br><h5>Type</h5>Article<br><br><h5>Authors</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Brüwer, Jan D.,equals">Brüwer, Jan D.</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Agrawal, Shobhit,equals">Agrawal, Shobhit</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0003-2553-8870&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Liew, Yi Jin</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2553-8870" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0001-6673-016X&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Aranda, Manuel</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6673-016X" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0003-4555-3795&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Voolstra, Christian R.</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4555-3795" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><br><h5>KAUST Department</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division,equals">Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Marine Science Program,equals">Marine Science Program</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Red Sea Research Center (RSRC),equals">Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)</a><br><br><h5>Online Publication Date</h5>2017-08-17<br><br><h5>Print Publication Date</h5>2017-12<br><br><h5>Date</h5>2017-08-17</span>
display.details.right<span><h5>Abstract</h5>Stony corals provide the structural foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are termed holobionts given they engage in symbioses, in particular with photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Besides Symbiodinium, corals also engage with bacteria affecting metabolism, immunity, and resilience of the coral holobiont, but the role of associated viruses is largely unknown. In this regard, the increase of studies using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to assess gene expression provides an opportunity to elucidate viral signatures encompassed within the data via careful delineation of sequence reads and their source of origin.Here, we re-analyzed an RNA-Seq dataset from a cultured coral symbiont (Symbiodinium microadriaticum, Clade A1) across four experimental treatments (control, cold shock, heat shock, dark shock) to characterize associated viral diversity, abundance, and gene expression. Our approach comprised the filtering and removal of host sequence reads, subsequent phylogenetic assignment of sequence reads of putative viral origin, and the assembly and analysis of differentially expressed viral genes. About 15.46% (123 million) of all sequence reads were non-host-related, of which <1% could be classified as archaea, bacteria, or virus. Of these, 18.78% were annotated as virus and comprised a diverse community consistent across experimental treatments. Further, non-host related sequence reads assembled into 56,064 contigs, including 4856 contigs of putative viral origin that featured 43 differentially expressed genes during heat shock. The differentially expressed genes included viral kinases, ubiquitin, and ankyrin repeat proteins (amongst others), which are suggested to help the virus proliferate and inhibit the algal host's antiviral response.Our results suggest that a diverse viral community is associated with coral algal endosymbionts of the genus Symbiodinium, which prompts further research on their ecological role in coral health and resilience.<br><br><h5>Citation</h5>Brüwer JD, Agrawal S, Liew YJ, Aranda M, Voolstra CR (2017) Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock. BMC Microbiology 17. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5.<br><br><h5>Acknowledgements</h5>Research reported in this publication was supported by a Science and Engineering Engagement and Development (SEED) fund (FCS/1/2449–01-01: The role of viruses in structuring the marine environment of the Red Sea) to the Red Sea Research Center at KAUST. JDB was funded by a Visiting Student Research Program (VSRP) fellowship by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The funders had no role in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, and in writing the manuscript.<br><br><h5>Publisher</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.publisher=Springer Nature,equals">Springer Nature</a><br><br><h5>Journal</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.journal=BMC Microbiology,equals">BMC Microbiology</a><br><br><h5>DOI</h5><a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5">10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5</a><br><br><h5>PubMed ID</h5><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28818037">28818037</a><br><br><h5>Additional Links</h5>https://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-017-1084-5<br><br><h5>Relations</h5><b>Is Supplemented By:</b><br/> <ul><li><i>[Dataset]</i> <br/> BrĂźwer, J., Shobhit Agrawal, Liew, Y., Aranda, M., &amp; Voolstra, C. (2017). <i>Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock</i>. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.C.3856954.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3856954.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3856954.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/663812" >10754/663812</a></a></li></ul></span>
display.relations<b>Is Supplemented By:</b><br/> <ul><li><i>[Dataset]</i> <br/> BrĂźwer, J., Shobhit Agrawal, Liew, Y., Aranda, M., &amp; Voolstra, C. (2017). <i>Association of coral algal symbionts with a diverse viral community responsive to heat shock</i>. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.C.3856954.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3856954.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3856954.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/663812" >10754/663812</a></a></li></ul>
kaust.personAgrawal, Shobhit
kaust.personLiew, Yi Jin
kaust.personAranda, Manuel
kaust.personVoolstra, Christian R.
orcid.authorBrüwer, Jan D.
orcid.authorAgrawal, Shobhit
orcid.authorLiew, Yi Jin::0000-0003-2553-8870
orcid.authorAranda, Manuel::0000-0001-6673-016X
orcid.authorVoolstra, Christian R.::0000-0003-4555-3795
orcid.id0000-0003-4555-3795
orcid.id0000-0001-6673-016X
orcid.id0000-0003-2553-8870
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T18:44:05Z
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