Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

dc.contributor.authorHatzell, Marta C.
dc.contributor.authorLogan, Bruce E.
dc.contributor.institutionPennsylvania State University, State College, United States
dc.date.accessioned2016-02-25T13:17:20Z
dc.date.available2016-02-25T13:17:20Z
dc.date.issued2013-11
dc.description.abstractAmmonium bicarbonate has recently been demonstrated to be an excellent thermolytic solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks at room temperatures can promote gaseous bubble (CO2, NH3) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were analyzed to determine how both fluid flow and the buildup and removal of bubbles affected performance. In the presence of a spacer, the membrane resistance increased by ~50Ω, resulting in a decrease in power density by 30% from 0.140Wm-2 to 0.093Wm-2. Shorter channels reduced concentration polarization affects, and resulted in 3-23% higher limiting current density. Gas accumulation was minimized through the use of short vertically aligned channels, and consequently the amount of the membrane area covered by bubbles was reduced from ~20% to 7% which caused a 12% increase in power density. As ammonium bicarbonate RED systems are scaled up, attention to channel aspect ratio, length, and alignment will enable more stable performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. (DGE0750756) and a grant from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) (Award KUS-I1-003-13).
dc.identifier.citationHatzell MC, Logan BE (2013) Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack. Journal of Membrane Science 446: 449–455. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.019.
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.019
dc.identifier.issn0376-7388
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Membrane Science
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/598247
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.subjectDiffusion boundary layer resistance
dc.subjectElectrochemical impedance spectroscopy
dc.subjectFluid flow field design
dc.subjectGas management
dc.subjectReverse electrodialysis
dc.titleEvaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack
dc.typeArticle
display.details.left<span><h5>Type</h5>Article<br><br><h5>Authors</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Hatzell, Marta C.,equals">Hatzell, Marta C.</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.author=Logan, Bruce E.,equals">Logan, Bruce E.</a><br><br><h5>KAUST Grant Number</h5>KUS-I1-003-13<br><br><h5>Date</h5>2013-11</span>
display.details.right<span><h5>Abstract</h5>Ammonium bicarbonate has recently been demonstrated to be an excellent thermolytic solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks at room temperatures can promote gaseous bubble (CO2, NH3) accumulation within the stack, reducing overall system performance. The management and minimization of bubbles formed in RED flow fields is an important operational issue which has yet to be addressed. Flow fields with and without spacers in RED stacks were analyzed to determine how both fluid flow and the buildup and removal of bubbles affected performance. In the presence of a spacer, the membrane resistance increased by ~50Ω, resulting in a decrease in power density by 30% from 0.140Wm-2 to 0.093Wm-2. Shorter channels reduced concentration polarization affects, and resulted in 3-23% higher limiting current density. Gas accumulation was minimized through the use of short vertically aligned channels, and consequently the amount of the membrane area covered by bubbles was reduced from ~20% to 7% which caused a 12% increase in power density. As ammonium bicarbonate RED systems are scaled up, attention to channel aspect ratio, length, and alignment will enable more stable performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.<br><br><h5>Citation</h5>Hatzell MC, Logan BE (2013) Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack. Journal of Membrane Science 446: 449–455. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.019.<br><br><h5>Acknowledgements</h5>This research was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. (DGE0750756) and a grant from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) (Award KUS-I1-003-13).<br><br><h5>Publisher</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.publisher=Elsevier BV,equals">Elsevier BV</a><br><br><h5>Journal</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.journal=Journal of Membrane Science,equals">Journal of Membrane Science</a><br><br><h5>DOI</h5><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.019">10.1016/j.memsci.2013.06.019</a></span>
kaust.grant.numberKUS-I1-003-13
orcid.authorHatzell, Marta C.
orcid.authorLogan, Bruce E.
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