Scattering-based focusing for imaging in highly complex media from band-limited, multi-component data

Abstract
Reconstructing the details of subsurface structures deep beneath complex overburden structures, such as sub-salt, remains a challenge for seismic imaging. Over the past years, the Marchenko redatuming approach has proven to reliably retrieve full-wavefield information in the presence of complex overburden effects. When used for redatuming, current practical Marchenko schemes cannot make use of a priori subsurface models with sharp contrasts because of their requirements regarding initial focusing functions, which for sufficiently complex media can result in redatumed fields with significant waveform inaccuracies. Using a scattering framework, we present an alternative form of the Marchenko representation that aims at retrieving only the unknown perturbations to both focusing functions and redatumed fields. From this framework, we propose a two-step practical focusing-based redatuming scheme that first solves an inverse problem for the background focusing functions, which are then used to estimate the perturbations to focusing functions and redatumed fields. In our scheme, initial focusing functions are significantly different from previous approaches since they contain complex waveforms encoding the full transmission response of the a priori model. Our goal is the handling of not only highly complex media but also realistic data - band-limited, unevenly sampled, free-surface-multiple contaminated data. To that end, we combine the versatility of Rayleigh-Marchenko redatuming with the proposed scattering-based scheme allowing an extended version of the method able to handle single-sided band-limited multicomponent data. This Scattering-Rayleigh-Marchenko strategy accurately retrieves wavefields while requiring minimum pre-processing of the data. In support of the new methods, we present a comprehensive set of numerical tests using a complex 2D subsalt model. Our numerical results show that the scattering approaches retrieve accurate redatumed fields that appropriately account for the complexity of the a priori model. We show that the improvements in wavefield retrieval translate into measurable improvements in our subsalt images.

Citation
Vargas, D., Vasconcelos, I., Sripanich, Y., & Ravasi, M. (2021). Scattering-based focusing for imaging in highly complex media from band-limited, multi-component data. GEOPHYSICS, 1–64. doi:10.1190/geo2020-0939.1

Publisher
Society of Exploration Geophysicists

Journal
GEOPHYSICS

DOI
10.1190/geo2020-0939.1

Additional Links
https://library.seg.org/doi/10.1190/geo2020-0939.1

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