Deep learning-assisted Bayesian framework for real-time CO2 leakage locating at geologic sequestration sites

Abstract
Accurate and efficient localization of CO2 leakage if occurred in subsurface formations, is of significant importance in achieving secure geological carbon sequestration (GCS) projects. However, this task is inherently challenging due to the considerable uncertainties in the subsurface. In this work, we develop a novel deep learning-assisted Bayesian framework for identifying potential CO2 leakage sites based on the reservoir pressure transient behavior measured at the wellbores of injection or observation wells. The method consists of two essential steps: 1) Deep learning surrogate: This step aims to effectively replace the intensive high-fidelity simulation with an efficient deep learning surrogate. 2) Bayesian inversion: In this step, the posterior distributions of potential CO2 leakage locations are inverted, in which the surrogate serves as the forward model. The above two processes are automated using Bayesian optimization instead of a labor-intensive trial-and-error approach. The proposed framework is verified using a 3D geological model simulating CO2 sequestration into a brine-filled reservoir. The results demonstrate the Bayesian-optimized surrogate could successfully capture the underlying process of subsurface CO2-brine flow. The Bayesian inversion algorithm enables localizing CO2 leakage with high accuracy. To our knowledge, the proposed Bayesian framework is implemented for the first time to locate multiple leakage sites at the field scale. The proposed workflow provides an accurate and efficient approach to detecting possible CO2 leakage locations in a real-time manner and has promising potential for field-scale GCS applications.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) for providing the licenses for MATLAB and CMG.

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Journal of Cleaner Production

DOI
10.1016/j.jclepro.2024.141484

Additional Links
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0959652624009326