Morphology of soot sampled from N2-diluted methane/air counterflow flames at elevated pressures via TEM imaging

dc.contributor.authorAmin, Hafiz
dc.contributor.authorBennett, Anthony
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, William L.
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Engineering
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentClean Combustion Research Center
dc.contributor.departmentMechanical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmenthigh-pressure combustion (HPC) Research Group
dc.date.accepted2020-02-14
dc.date.accessioned2020-03-16T07:45:59Z
dc.date.available2020-03-16T07:45:59Z
dc.date.issued2020-03-06
dc.date.published-online2020-03-06
dc.date.published-print2020-06
dc.date.submitted2019-07-28
dc.description.abstractAn experimental work is carried out to investigate the influence of pressure on morphological parameters of soot in counterflow flames of N2-diluted methane and air. Flames are stabilized at 3, 5, 7 and 10 atm in a pressure vessel and a global strain rate of 30 s−1 is maintained at all pressures by adjusting the inlet mass flux. The mole fraction of methane is maintained at 0.7. The entire soot zone of the counterflow flames are sampled using a thermophoretic sampling device attached to the pressure vessel. Our sampling method minimizes the flow disturbances to a level that they are visually negligible during the sampling process. Collected samples are analyzed under a transmission electron microscope and information about mean primary particle diameter, fractal dimension (Df), fractal prefactor (kf) and aggregate size distribution is inferred at different pressures. To investigate the effects of carbon flux on primary particle size, fuel mole fraction is decreased to 0.5 and primary particle size is investigated at 5, 7 and 10 atm. Mean primary particle size increases by 70% when pressure is changed from 5 to 10 atm and remains independent of fuel mole fractions. Geometric mean and geometric width of aggregate size distributions also increase by increasing the pressure. Fractal properties of soot aggregates are found to be insensitive to the pressure. Fractal dimension varies between 1.56 and 1.65 while fractal prefactor values range between 1.96 and 2.1.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to thank the Imaging and Characterization lab at KAUST for their assistance with the TEM analysis. This publication is based upon work supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.identifier.citationAmin, H. M. F., Bennett, A., & Roberts, W. L. (2020). Morphology of soot sampled from N2-diluted methane/air counterflow flames at elevated pressures via TEM imaging. Combustion and Flame, 216, 92–99. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017
dc.identifier.journalCombustion and Flame
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/662153
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010218020300808
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Combustion and Flame. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Combustion and Flame, [[Volume], [Issue], (2020-03-06)] DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017 . © 2020. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.rights.embargodate2022-02-14
dc.titleMorphology of soot sampled from N2-diluted methane/air counterflow flames at elevated pressures via TEM imaging
dc.typeArticle
display.details.left<span><h5>Embargo End Date</h5>2022-02-14<br><br><h5>Type</h5>Article<br><br><h5>Authors</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0002-6382-757X&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Amin, Hafiz</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6382-757X" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0002-8702-5520&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Bennett, Anthony</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8702-5520" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?query=orcid.id:0000-0003-1999-2831&spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC">Roberts, William L.</a> <a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1999-2831" target="_blank"><img src="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/server/api/core/bitstreams/82a625b4-ed4b-40c8-865a-d6a5225a26a4/content" width="16" height="16"/></a><br><br><h5>KAUST Department</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Chemical Engineering,equals">Chemical Engineering</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Chemical Engineering Program,equals">Chemical Engineering Program</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Clean Combustion Research Center,equals">Clean Combustion Research Center</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Mechanical Engineering Program,equals">Mechanical Engineering Program</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division,equals">Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division</a><br><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.department=high-pressure combustion (HPC) Research Group,equals">high-pressure combustion (HPC) Research Group</a><br><br><h5>Online Publication Date</h5>2020-03-06<br><br><h5>Print Publication Date</h5>2020-06<br><br><h5>Date</h5>2020-03-06<br><br><h5>Submitted Date</h5>2019-07-28</span>
display.details.right<span><h5>Abstract</h5>An experimental work is carried out to investigate the influence of pressure on morphological parameters of soot in counterflow flames of N2-diluted methane and air. Flames are stabilized at 3, 5, 7 and 10 atm in a pressure vessel and a global strain rate of 30 s−1 is maintained at all pressures by adjusting the inlet mass flux. The mole fraction of methane is maintained at 0.7. The entire soot zone of the counterflow flames are sampled using a thermophoretic sampling device attached to the pressure vessel. Our sampling method minimizes the flow disturbances to a level that they are visually negligible during the sampling process. Collected samples are analyzed under a transmission electron microscope and information about mean primary particle diameter, fractal dimension (Df), fractal prefactor (kf) and aggregate size distribution is inferred at different pressures. To investigate the effects of carbon flux on primary particle size, fuel mole fraction is decreased to 0.5 and primary particle size is investigated at 5, 7 and 10 atm. Mean primary particle size increases by 70% when pressure is changed from 5 to 10 atm and remains independent of fuel mole fractions. Geometric mean and geometric width of aggregate size distributions also increase by increasing the pressure. Fractal properties of soot aggregates are found to be insensitive to the pressure. Fractal dimension varies between 1.56 and 1.65 while fractal prefactor values range between 1.96 and 2.1.<br><br><h5>Citation</h5>Amin, H. M. F., Bennett, A., & Roberts, W. L. (2020). Morphology of soot sampled from N2-diluted methane/air counterflow flames at elevated pressures via TEM imaging. Combustion and Flame, 216, 92–99. doi:10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017<br><br><h5>Acknowledgements</h5>The authors would like to thank the Imaging and Characterization lab at KAUST for their assistance with the TEM analysis. This publication is based upon work supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).<br><br><h5>Publisher</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.publisher=Elsevier BV,equals">Elsevier BV</a><br><br><h5>Journal</h5><a href="https://repository.kaust.edu.sa/search?spc.sf=dc.date.issued&spc.sd=DESC&f.journal=Combustion and Flame,equals">Combustion and Flame</a><br><br><h5>DOI</h5><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017">10.1016/j.combustflame.2020.02.017</a><br><br><h5>Additional Links</h5>https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0010218020300808</span>
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitImaging and Characterization lab
kaust.personAmin, Hafiz
kaust.personBennett, Anthony
kaust.personRoberts, William L.
orcid.id0000-0003-1999-2831
orcid.id0000-0002-8702-5520
orcid.id0000-0002-6382-757X
refterms.dateFOA2020-03-16T11:02:58Z
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