Development and evaluation of portable low cost testing system for phthalates

Abstract
A portable low-cost microcontroller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electrodes capacitive sensor with enhanced penetration depth was used with the proposed system for detection of the said EDC. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by comparing the results to the commercially available electrochemical Impedimetric frequency response analyzer equipment. Complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting algorithm was used to deduce the equivalent circuit for the developed system. The DEHP detection results by the developed system were validated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection confirming that the proposed system was able to detect the concentration of phthalates in aqueous medium.

Citation
Zia, A. I., Mukhopadhyay, S. C., Yu, P. L., Al-Bahadly, I. H., Gooneratne, C., & Kosel, J. (2020). Development and Evaluation of Portable Low Cost Testing System for Phthalates. International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, 7(5), 1–7. doi:10.21307/ijssis-2019-137

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Massey University, New Zealand, for providing the best possible research facilities. The authors are obliged to COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Higher Education Commission Pakistan, for providing support and funds to work on this project. Special thanks to all researches referenced throughout the paper whose valuable research has guided the way through to this research work, and to all whom that had fruitful discussions and collaborations with the authors, especially Mr. Justin Moloney for Arduinos' design and development.

Publisher
Exeley, Inc.

Journal
International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems

DOI
10.21307/IJSSIS-2019-137

Additional Links
https://www.exeley.com/in_jour_smart_sensing_and_intelligent_systems/doi/10.21307/ijssis-2019-137http://www.exeley.com/exeley/journals/in_jour_smart_sensing_and_intelligent_systems/7/5/pdf/10.21307_ijssis-2019-137.pdf

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