Genetic Characterization and Curation of Diploid A-Genome Wheat Species.

Abstract
A-genome diploid wheats represent the earliest domesticated and cultivated wheat species in the Fertile Crescent and include the donor of the wheat A sub-genome. The A-genome species encompass the cultivated einkorn (Triticum. monococcum L. subsp. monococcum), wild einkorn (T. monococcum L. subsp. aegilopoides (Link) Thell.), and T. urartu. We evaluated the collection of 930 accessions in the Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and identified 13,860 curated SNPs. Genomic analysis detected misclassified and genetically identical (> 99%) accessions, with most of the identical accessions originating from the same or nearby locations. About 56% (n = 520) of the WGRC A-genome species collections were genetically identical, supporting the need for genomic characterization for effective curation and maintenance of these collections. Population structure analysis confirmed the morphology-based classifications of the accessions and reflected the species geographic distributions. We also showed that T. urartu is the closest A-genome diploid to the A-subgenome in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through phylogenetic analysis. Population analysis within the wild einkorn group showed three genetically distinct clusters, which corresponded with wild einkorn races α, β, and γ described previously. The T. monococcum genome-wide FST scan identified candidate genomic regions harboring a domestication selection signature at the non-brittle rachis 1(Btr1) locus on the short arm of chromosome 3Am at ∼ 70 Mb. We established an A-genome core set (79 accessions) based on allelic diversity, geographical distribution, and available phenotypic data. The individual species core set maintained at least 80% of allelic variants in the A-genome collection and constitute a valuable genetic resource to improve wheat and domesticated einkorn in breeding programs.

Citation
Adhikari, L., Raupp, J., Wu, S., Wilson, D., Evers, B., Koo, D.-H., Singh, N., Friebe, B., & Poland, J. (2022). Genetic Characterization and Curation of Diploid A-Genome Wheat Species. Plant Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiac006

Acknowledgements
This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and Industry Partners under Award No. (1822162) “Phase II IUCRC at Kansas State University Center for Wheat Genetic Resources” and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. (1339389) “GPF-PG: Genome Structure and Diversity of Wheat and Its Wild Relatives”. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation or industry partners

Publisher
Oxford University Press (OUP)

Journal
Plant physiology

DOI
10.1093/plphys/kiac006

PubMed ID
35134208

Additional Links
https://academic.oup.com/plphys/advance-article/doi/10.1093/plphys/kiac006/6521040

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