A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

Abstract
An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

Citation
Lee J-G, Kim W-S, Choi J-S, Ghaffour N, Kim Y-D (2016) A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches. Water Research 107: 47–56. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.059.

Acknowledgements
The research reported in this paper was supported by a grant (code 13IFIP-B065893-03) from the Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of the Korean Government.

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Water Research

DOI
10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.059

Additional Links
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135416308120

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