Magnetohydrodynamic hybrid nanofluid flow through moving thin needle considering variable viscosity and thermal conductivity

Abstract
In modern science and technology, industrial applications that deal with the problem of continuously moving thin needle, surrounded with fluid in sectors like hot rolling, crystal growing, heat extrusion, glass fiber drawing, etc., are rapidly increasing. Such processes involve high temperatures which may affect the fluid properties that is, viscosity and thermal conductivity. So, it’s crucial to understand temperature-dependent fluid properties. Focused on these assumptions, the main objective of the current research work is to investigate how temperature-dependent fluid properties might improve the heat transfer efficiency and performance evolution of hybrid nanofluid in the presence of transverse magnetic field over a moving thin needle. Variable Prandtl number is also introduced to observe flow fluctuation, the effect of adding nanoparticles, and enhancement in heat transmission. The results are obtained for different needle thicknesses, temperature-dependent viscosity, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and heat generation. Moreover, Fe3O4/Graphene nanoparticles are considered to be dispersed in water. The governing partial differential equations of flow and heat transfer are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using analysis of similarity conversion. Subsequently, the numerical solution of the problem is attained by employing the MAPLE software. The fourth-fifth-order Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RFK45) approach is used by default in this MAPLE program to address the numerical problem of boundary value. The velocity and temperature field are pictured for different values of the parameters as well as physical quantities of interest such as skin friction coefficient and rate of heat transfer are visually depicted in graphs and tables. It is found that fluid motion and energy transport are highly regulated by the variation of magnetic field strength. As the volume fraction of Fe3O4 is increased, the heat generation, and thermal conductivity parameter vehemently enhance the temperature profile which leads to a rise in thermal boundary layer. A strong augmentation in the heat transfer rate has been found with the increment in the variable Prandtl number.

Acknowledgements
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: We would like to show our gratitude and acknowledged to Bose Centre for Advance study and Research in Natural Science at University of Dhaka for contributing this research work.

Publisher
SAGE Publications

Journal
Advances in Mechanical Engineering

DOI
10.1177/16878132231208272

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