Highly Stable ZnS Anodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries Enabled by Structure and Electrolyte Engineering

Abstract
Zinc sulfide is a promising high-capacity anode for practical sodium-ion batteries, considering its high capacity and the low cost of zinc and sulfur sources. However, the pulverization of particulate zinc sulfide causes active mass collapse and penetration-induced short circuits of batteries. Herein, a zinc sulfide encapsulated in a nitrogen-doped carbon shell (ZnS@NC) was developed for high-performance anodes. The confinement effect of nitrogen-doped carbon stabilizes the active mass structure during cycling thanks to the robust chemically and electronically bonded connections between nitrogen-doped carbon and zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Furthermore, the cycling stability of the ZnS@NC anode is boosted by the robust inorganic-rich solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed in cyclic and linear ether-based electrolytes. The ZnS@NC anode displayed a reversible specific capacity of 584 mAh g–1, an excellent rate capability of 327 mAh g–1 at 70 A g–1, and a highly stable cycling performance over 10000 cycles. This work provides a practical and promising approach to designing stable conversion anodes for high-performance sodium-ion batteries.

Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (22108044, U23A6005), the Research and Development Program in Key Fields of Guangdong Province (2020B1111380002), the Basic Research and Applicable Basic Research in Guangzhou City (202201010290), the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Biorefinery (2021GDKLPRB07), the Silk Road Economic Belt Innovation-driven Development Pilot Zone, and Wuchangshi National Independent Innovation Demonstration Zone Science and Technology Development Plan of China (2023LQ04002), the authors acknowledge the Analysis and Test Center, Guangdong University of Technology for the structural analysis of our specimens.

Publisher
American Chemical Society (ACS)

Journal
ACS Nano

DOI
10.1021/acsnano.3c11785

Additional Links
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.3c11785