The Global, Regional, and National Burden of Adult Lip, Oral, and Pharyngeal Cancer in 204 Countries and Territories

Type
Article

Authors
GBD 2019 Lip, Oral, and Pharyngeal Cancer Collaborators
Cunha, Amanda Ramos da
Compton, Kelly
Xu, Rixing
Mishra, Rashmi
Drangsholt, Mark Thomas
Antunes, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira
Kerr, Alexander R.
Acheson, Alistair R.
Lu, Dan
Wallace, Lindsey E.
Kocarnik, Jonathan M.
Fu, Weijia
Dean, Frances E.
Pennini, Alyssa
Henrikson, Hannah Jacqueline
Alam, Tahiya
Ababneh, Emad
Abd-Elsalam, Sherief
Abdoun, Meriem
Abidi, Hassan
Abubaker Ali, Hiwa
Abu-Gharbieh, Eman
Adane, Tigist Demssew
Addo, Isaac Yeboah
Ahmad, Aqeel
Ahmad, Sajjad
Ahmed Rashid, Tarik
Akonde, Maxwell
Al Hamad, Hanadi
Alahdab, Fares
Alimohamadi, Yousef
Alipour, Vahid
Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali
Alsharif, Ubai
Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza
Anwar, Sumadi Lukman
Anyasodor, Anayochukwu Edward
Arabloo, Jalal
Aravkin, Aleksandr Y.
Aruleba, Raphael Taiwo
Asaad, Malke
Ashraf, Tahira
Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin
Attia, Sameh
Azadnajafabad, Sina
Azangou-Khyavy, Mohammadreza
Badar, Muhammad
Baghcheghi, Nayereh
Banach, Maciej
Bardhan, Mainak
Barqawi, Hiba Jawdat
Bashir, Nasir Z.
Bashiri, Azadeh
Benzian, Habib
Bernabe, Eduardo
Bhagat, Devidas S.
Bhojaraja, Vijayalakshmi S.
Bj�rge, Tone
Bouaoud, Souad
Braithwaite, Dejana
Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich
Calina, Daniela
Carreras, Giulia
Chakraborty, Promit Ananyo
Chattu, Vijay Kumar
Chaurasia, Akhilanand
Chen, Meng Xuan
Cho, William C. S.
Chu, Dinh-Toi
Chukwu, Isaac Sunday
Chung, Eunice
Cruz-Martins, Nat�lia
Dadras, Omid
Dai, Xiaochen
Dandona, Lalit
Dandona, Rakhi
Daneshpajouhnejad, Parnaz
Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza
Darwesh, Aso Mohammad
Debela, Sisay Abebe
Derbew Molla, Meseret
Dessalegn, Fikadu Nugusu
Dianati-Nasab, Mostafa
Digesa, Lankamo Ena
Dixit, Shilpi Gupta
Dixit, Abhinav
Djalalinia, Shirin
El Sayed, Iman
El Tantawi, Maha
Enyew, Daniel Berhanie
Erku, Daniel Asfaw
Ezzeddini, Rana
Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis
Falzone, Luca
Fetensa, Getahun
Fukumoto, Takeshi
Gaewkhiew, Piyada
Gallus, Silvano
Gebrehiwot, Mesfin
Ghashghaee, Ahmad
Gill, Paramjit Singh
Golechha, Mahaveer
Goleij, Pouya
Gomez, Ricardo Santiago
Gorini, Giuseppe
Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena
Gupta, Bhawna
Gupta, Sapna
Gupta, Veer Bala
Gupta, Vivek Kumar
Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
Halboub, Esam S.
Halwani, Rabih
Hanif, Asif
Hariyani, Ninuk
Harorani, Mehdi
Hasani, Hamidreza
Hassan, Abbas M.
Hassanipour, Soheil
Hassen, Mohammed Bheser
Hay, Simon I.
Hayat, Khezar
Herrera-Serna, Brenda Yuliana
Holla, Ramesh
Horita, Nobuyuki
Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi
Hussain, Salman
Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
Ilic, Irena M.
Ilic, Milena D.
Isola, Gaetano
Jaiswal, Abhishek
Jani, Chinmay T.
Javaheri, Tahereh
Jayarajah, Umesh
Jayaram, Shubha
Joseph, Nitin
Kadashetti, Vidya
Kandaswamy, Eswar
Karanth, Shama D.
Karaye, Ibraheem M.
Kauppila, Joonas H.
Kaur, Harkiran
Keykhaei, Mohammad
Khader, Yousef Saleh
Khajuria, Himanshu
Khanali, Javad
Khatib, Mahalaqua Nazli
Khayat Kashani, Hamid Reza
Khazeei Tabari, Mohammad Amin
Kim, Min Seo
Kompani, Farzad
Koohestani, Hamid Reza
Kumar, G. Anil
Kurmi, Om P.
La Vecchia, Carlo
Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
Landires, Iv�n
Lasrado, Savita
Ledda, Caterina
Lee, Yo Han
Libra, Massimo
Lim, Stephen S.
Listl, Stefan
Lopukhov, Platon D.
Mafi, Ahmad R.
Mahumud, Rashidul Alam
Malik, Ahmad Azam
Mathur, Manu Raj
Maulud, Sazan Qadir
Meena, Jitendra Kumar
Mehrabi Nasab, Entezar
Mestrovic, Tomislav
Mirfakhraie, Reza
Misganaw, Awoke
Misra, Sanjeev
Mithra, Prasanna
Mohammad, Yousef
Mohammadi, Mokhtar
Mohammadi, Esmaeil
Mokdad, Ali H.
Moni, Mohammad Ali
Moraga, Paula
Morrison, Shane Douglas
Mozaffari, Hamid Reza
Mubarik, Sumaira
Murray, Christopher J. L.
Nair, Tapas Sadasivan
Narasimha Swamy, Sreenivas
Narayana, Aparna Ichalangod
Nassereldine, Hasan
Natto, Zuhair S.
Nayak, Biswa Prakash
Negru, Serban Mircea
Nggada, Haruna Asura
Nouraei, Hasti
Nu�ez-Samudio, Virginia
Oancea, Bogdan
Olagunju, Andrew T.
Omar Bali, Ahmed
Padron-Monedero, Alicia
Padubidri, Jagadish Rao
Pandey, Anamika
Pardhan, Shahina
Patel, Jay
Pezzani, Raffaele
Piracha, Zahra Zahid
Rabiee, Navid
Radhakrishnan, Venkatraman
Radhakrishnan, Raghu Anekal
Rahmani, Amir Masoud
Rahmanian, Vahid
Rao, Chythra R.
Rao, Sowmya J.
Rath, Goura Kishor
Rawaf, David Laith
Rawaf, Salman
Rawassizadeh, Reza
Razeghinia, Mohammad Sadegh
Rezaei, Nazila
Rezaei, Negar
Rezaei, Nima
Rezapour, Aziz
Riad, Abanoub
Roberts, Thomas J.
Romero-Rodr�guez, Esperanza
Roshandel, Gholamreza
S., Manjula
S. N., Chandan
Saddik, Basema
Saeb, Mohammad Reza
Saeed, Umar
Safaei, Mohsen
Sahebazzamani, Maryam
Sahebkar, Amirhossein
Salek Farrokhi, Amir
Samy, Abdallah M.
Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.
Sathian, Brijesh
Satpathy, Maheswar
�ekerija, Mario
Senthilkumaran, Subramanian
Seylani, Allen
Shafaat, Omid
Shahsavari, Hamid R.
Shamsoddin, Erfan
Sharew, Mequannent Melaku
Sharifi-Rad, Javad
Shetty, Jeevan K.
Shivakumar, K. M.
Shobeiri, Parnian
Shorofi, Seyed Afshin
Shrestha, Sunil
Siddappa Malleshappa, Sudeep K.
Singh, Paramdeep
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Singh, Garima
Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
Solomon, Yonatan
Suleman, Muhammad
Suliankatchi Abdulkader, Rizwan
Taheri Abkenar, Yasaman
Talaat, Iman M.
Tan, Ker-Kan
Tbakhi, Abdelghani
Thiyagarajan, Arulmani
Tiyuri, Amir
Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran
Vo, Bay
Volovat, Simona Ruxandra
Wang, Cong
Westerman, Ronny
Wickramasinghe, Nuwan Darshana
Xiao, Hong
Yu, Chuanhua
Yuce, Deniz
Yunusa, Ismaeel
Zadnik, Vesna
Zare, Iman
Zhang, Zhi-Jiang
Zoladl, Mohammad
Force, Lisa M.
Hugo, Fernando N.

KAUST Department
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Science and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
Statistics Program

Date
2023-09-07

Abstract
Importance: Lip, oral, and pharyngeal cancers are important contributors to cancer burden worldwide, and a comprehensive evaluation of their burden globally, regionally, and nationally is crucial for effective policy planning.

Objective: To analyze the total and risk-attributable burden of lip and oral cavity cancer (LOC) and other pharyngeal cancer (OPC) for 204 countries and territories and by Socio-demographic Index (SDI) using 2019 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study estimates.

Evidence Review: The incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to LOC and OPC from 1990 to 2019 were estimated using GBD 2019 methods. The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate the proportion of deaths and DALYs for LOC and OPC attributable to smoking, tobacco, and alcohol consumption in 2019.

Findings: In 2019, 370 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 338 000-401 000) cases and 199 000 (95% UI, 181 000-217 000) deaths for LOC and 167 000 (95% UI, 153 000-180 000) cases and 114 000 (95% UI, 103 000-126 000) deaths for OPC were estimated to occur globally, contributing 5.5 million (95% UI, 5.0-6.0 million) and 3.2 million (95% UI, 2.9-3.6 million) DALYs, respectively. From 1990 to 2019, low-middle and low SDI regions consistently showed the highest age-standardized mortality rates due to LOC and OPC, while the high SDI strata exhibited age-standardized incidence rates decreasing for LOC and increasing for OPC. Globally in 2019, smoking had the greatest contribution to risk-attributable OPC deaths for both sexes (55.8% [95% UI, 49.2%-62.0%] of all OPC deaths in male individuals and 17.4% [95% UI, 13.8%-21.2%] of all OPC deaths in female individuals). Smoking and alcohol both contributed to substantial LOC deaths globally among male individuals (42.3% [95% UI, 35.2%-48.6%] and 40.2% [95% UI, 33.3%-46.8%] of all risk-attributable cancer deaths, respectively), while chewing tobacco contributed to the greatest attributable LOC deaths among female individuals (27.6% [95% UI, 21.5%-33.8%]), driven by high risk-attributable burden in South and Southeast Asia.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic analysis, disparities in LOC and OPC burden existed across the SDI spectrum, and a considerable percentage of burden was attributable to tobacco and alcohol use. These estimates can contribute to an understanding of the distribution and disparities in LOC and OPC burden globally and support cancer control planning efforts.

Citation
Cunha, A. R. da, Compton, K., Xu, R., Mishra, R., Drangsholt, M. T., Antunes, J. L. F., Kerr, A. R., Acheson, A. R., Lu, D., Wallace, L. E., Kocarnik, J. M., Fu, W., Dean, F. E., Pennini, A., Henrikson, H. J., Alam, T., Ababneh, E., Abd-Elsalam, S., … Hugo, F. N. (2023). The Global, Regional, and National Burden of Adult Lip, Oral, and Pharyngeal Cancer in 204 Countries and Territories. JAMA Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.2960

Acknowledgements
Financial support for Global Burden of Disease research was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Publisher
American Medical Association (AMA)

Journal
JAMA Oncology

DOI
10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.2960

Additional Links
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/fullarticle/2809272

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