Recent Submissions

  • Digital Twin Assisted Microwave Multiphase Flow Measurement Meters for Oil and Gas Industry

    Akhter, Zubair (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    The oil and gas industry is increasingly utilizing non-metallic or composite pipes due to their numerous advantages such as being lighter in weight, having a lower environmental impact, being easier to transport and install, and being resistant to corrosion, chemicals, and extreme temperatures, making them suitable for use in harsh environments. The use of non-metallic pipes also opens up a wide range of possibilities for non-contact and non-invasive sensing and metering of multiphase flow i.e. oil, water, and gas using microwave non-ionization radiation in the oil and gas industry. This is because electromagnetic energy cannot penetrate metal pipes. Currently, the majority of existing multiphase flow meters (MPFMs) use a radioactive source as radioactive energy absorption is linearly related to the effective density of the medium under test (MUT). Gas volume fraction (GVF), which is the relative fraction of gases to liquids, can be easily measured using radioactive sources due to their high contrast in densities. However, despite offering a robust sensing mechanism, radioactive sources are avoided in multiphase flow metering due to expensive overhead requirements such as extensive export documentation, radiation safety officials, and radioactive source disposal policy. Additionally, the drift in naturally occurring radiation poses a significant challenge in the operational maintenance of radioactive MPFMs. Scientists have explored various non-radioactive options for measuring multiphase flow. Ultrasound and infrared waves are not ideal as they either disperse too much in gas or cannot penetrate deeply into the fluid. Instead, using dielectric measurements in combination with a cross-correlation algorithm offers a non-invasive and comprehensive way to sense multiphase flow. However, this technique relies on identifying specific flow patterns to accurately calculate gas velocities through cross-correlation, as otherwise inaccurate gas density estimates could lead to significant errors in phase fraction measurements. Presently, there is no commercially available technology that can measure multiphase fractions of oil, water, and gas in a non-radioactive, non-intrusive as well as flow pattern-independent manner. We are introducing a novel sensing and metering solution which essentially measures the dielectric properties of multiphase fluid. It is an established fact that multiphase fluid exhibits non-linear and non-monotonic dielectric properties and is therefore challenging to measure using dielectric sensing. To mitigate this challenge, we have developed a digital twin model of a multiphase mixture that can accurately predict the sensor response in the full range of water-liquid ratio (0-100%) and gas volume fractions (0-95%). This model is powerful enough to even predict the non-linearity and non-monotonicity in dielectric response caused by salinity and temperature changes. Saher flow solutions have developed a Water Cut and Multiphase flow meter (MPFM) that utilizes Microwave Dual Mutually Orthogonal Resonator (DMOR) technology, supported by a digital twin model that has been verified through rigorous testing in a full-scale flow loop at South West Research Institute in the United States. The results have demonstrated that this technology can accurately predict a full range of water-to-liquid ratios (0-100%) within ±3% (absolute) accuracy, a full range of gas-to-liquid ratios (0-95%) within ±5% (absolute) accuracy, liquid flow rate within ±5% (relative), and gas flow rate within ±7% (relative). The meter has been tested under various conditions, including two different salinity levels (30, 000 ppm and 130,000 ppm), a temperature of 27°C, and can withstand up to 1500 psi pressure and 125°C fluid temperature. The readout electronics are also certified for use in hazardous environments. Field trials for the meter will be conducted later this year.
  • Impact Load Response of Bio-inspired Laminated Composite Structures

    Baakeel, Faisal (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    The demands for lightweight and high-performance structures in different industrial applications have provided a strong need for development of composite materials under different loading condition. Low velocity impact is one of them that can induce significant internal damage and cause large drops in the strength and stability of the structures. This study presents a numerical simulation model to investigate the load response of the low velocity impact of composite plates using the commercial explicit finite element code LS-DYNA. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) with unidirectional, cross-ply, quasi-Isotropic, bio-inspired helicoidal ordinations have been considered. 2D modelling approach with single shell elements was adopted, while the plies thickness and fiber-orientation were defined using PART_COMPOSITE. The linear-elastic composite material model MAT54 was used to define the CFRP composite material, the rigid model MAT20 was used to define the impactor s material as a rigid body. Some control parameters in MAT54 have been successfully calibrated to match the experimental results. The following model can be exploited of design and analysis of new advanced bio-inspired composite with different configurations under low velocity impact including damage zone.
  • Computational study of the polyacetal-carbon fiber interphase

    Albalawi, Homoud (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    The shift towards non-metallic materials is an industrial objective globally and in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This objective is based on environmental sustainability goals and economic advantages represented in lower operational and corrosion costs. Innovative composites research is also in line with industrial initiatives proposed by the oil sustainability program in Saudi Arabia. This research aims to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the effect of adding Carbon nanotubes on the surface of Polyacetal Carbon fibre composite. The mission is to quantify the effects on the interfacial energy, adhesion, and eventually mechanical performance. A series of molecular dynamics simulations is carried out using Large-scale atomic molecular massively parallel simulator on modelled structures of this composite to achieve this goal. The models vary between the two types of polyacetals, Homopolymer and copolymer, along with different loadings of SWCNT s. The results showed that higher stresses are required to peel the Polyacetal copolymer of the Carbon surface. The addition of up to 4% SWCNT on the surface improved the mechanical interlocking of this type of polyacetal. The significance of this proposed composite is in the high strength of the Carbon fibres and chemical stability of the Polyacetals. This Thermoplastic-CF Composite can be developed for oil and gas storage and transportation applications. It can also be of a great value when looking for a recyclable eco-friendly substitution of Thermoset-CF composites. The value of this research can also be realized by polyacetals producers when targeting suitable CF composite applications for their product.
  • Composite Inspection Solutions

    BABA, Sabri (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Aircraft manufacturers, maintenance service providers, and airline operators have recently started to use ultrasonic phased array (PA) technology to help ensure the quality of their composite parts during maintenance and manufacturing. Parts manufactured of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) pose an inspection challenge because of their many shapes and thicknesses.
  • Thermoplastic Composites for Energy Infrastructure

    Ghazzawi, Yousof (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Reinforced thermoplastic pipes (RTPs) have become popular as a replacement for traditional steel pipes, particularly in the oil and gas industry. This is due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio, chemical resistance, spoolability, ease of installation, and long-term reliability. These characteristics make RTPs a sustainable and attractive solution for operating in high-pressure and extremely corrosive environments such as oil and gas flowlines and water injection lines. RTPs are multilayer structured pipes reinforced with high-strength materials such as glass, aramid, and carbon fibers. SABIC has successfully qualified and validated its PE4710 and PE-RT II resins for use in RTP liners and jackets. Additionally, SABIC s Unidirectional Glass fiber reinforced High Density Polyethylene (UDGPE) tapes have shown exceptional mechanical performance and physical qualities as a promising solution for the RTP structural layer. In this poster, we will discuss the value proposition and value chain of RTPs. We will also cover the development process of material solutions for RTPs from material testing to engagement with leading pipe manufacturers for validation of materials .
  • Spooled-based Peeling System for Adhesion Testing of Soft-to-rigid Assemblies

    Li, Xiaole (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    A novel SPOOLED-BASED peeling system is developed to address the limitations of current peeling standards when evaluating the bonding quality of soft-to-rigid assemblies. The system transforms the translation of a specimen in the conventional peeling configuration to rotation via a spool clamping the specimen. The peeled film is loaded by tension to drive the winding of the spool, thus achieving self-similar crack propagation and a stationary peeling front unrelated to the stiffness of the film.
  • Novel technique for producing a quasi-isotropic honeycomb sandwich panel based-additive manufacturing

    aldoihi, Saad (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Nowadays, there is an increasing demand of using sandwich structures in modern aircraft for flight control surfaces such as aileron, flap and rudder. Two outer thin laminates (strong thin face sheets) usually adhere to a middle core structure to form sandwich composite structures. Mostly cellular core structures are made of Nomex, aluminum and fiberglass where the thin face sheets are made of glass or carbon fiber reinforced polymers. The sandwich core structures have a several advantages compared with other structural materials such as light weight, corrosion resistance, crashworthiness, high mechanical and thermal stability[1]. However, there is difficulty to build complex geometries of sandwich structures using conventional methods[2]. Hence, additive manufacturing technology such as fused filament fabrication (FFF) represents a modern method for manufacturing parts with high level of complexity and fewer waste. The inherently problem is that the strength of 3D printed parts is maximized along the direction of the print bed (0°) and weaker in others directions e.g. (90°) [3]. Moreover, this problem has been existed in the wieldy used commercial Nomex honeycomb where the L-direction has high strength compared to W-direction. This work presents the initial investigation of using fused filament fabrication process to produce honeycomb cores which have a quasi-isotropic behavior in the x and y plane. Three honeycomb core samples with alternate alignment of layers [±45o, 90o, 0o]s were printed along y- axis (90o), 45o and x-axis (0o). To manufacture sandwich structures composites, two face sheet consist of four layers of glass fiber reinforced polymer were adhered to upper and lower surface of printed core samples. Three-point bending test was conducted to measure the strength and flexural modulus of elasticity for the three samples. Based on the experiment, it has been shown that the three samples have a similar strength and flexural modulus of elasticity.
  • Audible Acoustic Operational Health Monitoring for Jet Engines

    Naaman, Marwan (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Due to the global diversion from conventional fossil fuels and through the Storage of Ammonia For Energy (SAFE) program supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), an experiment was set up to determine the acoustic signature of two decommissioned Rover MK10501engine. The intention of this experiment is to potentially develop new methods of engine health monitoring to allow for future monitoring of these engines when they are modified to combust ammonia cracked hydrogen. The study utilises an acoustic camera array (Fibonacci Pro-96) in conjunction with Delay-and-sum algorithm to identify and localise sounds produced by the engine during operation. This study finds that the the acoustic camera is capable of distinguishing between sound produced by flue gases, ignition sparks, and general movements of mechanical components. The camera also distinguishes between the smooth-running engine and the less efficient engine through the differences in acoustic frequency ranges. The results show promising potential for acoustic cameras to be more widely used in non-invasive engine health monitoring.
  • Ultra-Sensitive Wireless Strain Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Applications

    Mahmoud, Hassan (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Introduction Structural health monitoring (SHM) is essential for ensuring safety of structures during operations. Embedded sensors are one of the most effective and accurate methods for monitoring structures in a large area. Composite structures such as pipelines, tanks, aircraft, ships, and ground vehicles confront some challenges with embedding strain systems. Incorporating strain gauges or optical fibers can contribute to the host's delamination, cracking, and structural failure in addition to the need for expensive equipment. Objectives Develop a flexible chipless wireless strain sensor with ultra-sensitivity in strain measurements. The sensor has to be a passive wireless sensor to eliminate the electric wiring and reduce power consumption. Integrate the sensor with composite structures (GFRP, CFRP, .,etc.) to detect strains and monitor structure integrity. Method The sensor has been developed based on RFID sensing technology that allows wireless data and power transmission by inductive coupling between the internal inductance of the sensor and the external readout coil. Microfabrication technology is used to fabricate the sensor by patterning a metallic LC circuit on a flexible substrate. Nano cracks are introduced to the electrode to create a piezoresistive effect that leads to a transmission line behavior of the capacitance. The unconventional change in capacitance of the LC oscillator reflects a sensitive shifting in resonance frequency of the flexible circuit, producing a sensitive wireless strain sensor with a Gauge factor of 50 for less than 1% strain.
  • Understanding Bond Testing Technology

    BABA, Sabri (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Is bond testing the same as ultrasound testing? No! Ultrasound testing uses ultrasonic bursts that are silent to the human ear and cannot travel through the air. Bond testing uses audible acoustic bursts that can travel through the air.What materials are commonly used? Honeycomb composites, carbon fiber reinforced polymers, fiberglass, and metal-to-metal bonding in bond testing. Where are these materials commonly found? These materials are commonly found in aerospace, trains, performance vehicles, and pleasure boats.
  • Structural Investigation of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) based Wind Turbine Blade Design

    Khan, Tabrej (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    This study presents a structural investigation of a CFRP-based wind turbine blade design using finite element analysis (FEA). The FEA model was developed to simulate the deformation and stress distribution of the blade under various wind loads. The results of the FEA simulations indicate that the CFRP-based wind turbine blade design can withstand the loads and stresses it will experience in operation. The simulations also reveal that the distribution of stresses in the blade is affected by the location and orientation of the CFRP reinforcement layers. The study highlights the importance of considering the material properties and orientation of the CFRP reinforcement layers in the blade design to ensure optimal performance and durability in harsh operating conditions.
  • Using simulation for more accurate and faster composites development

    chabrillat, anne laure (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Composites offer many opportunities and challenges when it comes to design and replacing traditional materials especially in the energy sector where corrosion is a key issue. How can engineers simply compare composites and traditional materials for performance, price and minimal environmental impact? What impacts will changing to composite have in terms of design potential? Designing and testing composite materials and structures can be challenging, as they can exhibit complex behavior, such as non-linear deformation, delamination, and failure modes that can be difficult to predict. We will show how, by using simulation, engineers can model the behavior of complex composite materials and structures and simulate how they will perform under different loading conditions. This can help to optimize the design of composite components and structures, improve their performance, and reduce the risk of failure. engineers visualise these impact and speed up acceptance by reducing the testing costs of these new designs. For many very specific areas of the energy sector simulation has proven its value in accelerating composite solution acceptance. We will give examples in this poster. Capturing knowledge around composites helps an organisation learn and implement faster. This is especially important in heavily regulated domains such as the energy sector. We will show how material data management platforms can help actors share information in an efficient way. Finally we ll see how having organised information helps apply AI to the development of new composites targeted to applications and reduce the cost of testing these solutions.
  • Thermoplastic Composites Supporting Sustainable Energy Sector in Future

    Yaldiz, Recep (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Unidirectional thermoplastic composite tapes are highly engineered advanced composite materials providing extraordinary mechanical properties, chemical resistance, durability, and fire resistance. Last decade, these composite materials started having strong traction from Oil & Gas industry for Reinforced Thermoplastic Pipes (RTPs), which bring considerable advantages over traditional metal piping systems in terms of achieving a lower life cycle cost and enhancing sustainability. Thermoplastic pipes are corrosion resistant, bringing extended and nearly maintenance-free pipelines compared to steel pipes, especially when exposed to CO2 & H2S. These pipes are spooled for hundreds of meters, allowing a reduced installation time and cost, especially in tough landscapes. RTPs leverage the increasing need of the energy sector to reduce operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Besides the value proposition of Thermoplastic Composites for RTPs, the authors will elaborate on the (technical) challenges and current solution approaches.
  • Strategies to enhance composite and hybrid bonded joint toughness and safety

    Abdel Hady, Ahmed (2023-06-12) [Poster]
    Strategies to enhance composite and hybrid bonded joint toughness and safety

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