Structures, band gaps, and formation energies of highly stable phases of inorganic ABX3 halides: A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl; B = Be, Mg, Ca, Ge, Sr, Sn, Pb; and X = F, Cl, Br, I

Abstract
Recently, halide perovskites have attracted a substantial attention. Although the focus was mostly on hybrid ones with organic polyatomic cations and with inadequate stability, there is a sizable inorganic halide space that is not well explored and may be more stable than hybrid perovskites. In this work, a robust automated framework is used to calculate the essential properties of the highly stable phases of 168 inorganic halide perovskites. The considered space of ABX3 compounds consists of A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl, B = Be, Mg, Ca, Ge, Sr, Sn, Pb, and X = F, Cl, Br, I. The targeted properties are the structure, the formation energy to assess stability, and the energy gap for potential applicability. The calculations are carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) integrated with the precision library of Standard Solid-State Pseudopotentials (SSSP) for structure relaxation and PseudoDojo for energy gap calculation. Furthermore, we adopted a very sufficient and robust random sampling to identify the highly stable phases. The results illustrated that only 118 of the possible 168 compounds are formidable and have reliable results. The remaining 50 compounds are either not formidable or suffer from computational inconsistencies.

Citation
Alqahtani, S. M., Alsayoud, A. Q., & Alharbi, F. H. (2023). Structures, band gaps, and formation energies of highly stable phases of inorganic ABX3 halides: A = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Tl; B = Be, Mg, Ca, Ge, Sr, Sn, Pb; and X = F, Cl, Br, I. RSC Advances, 13(13), 9026–9032. https://doi.org/10.1039/d3ra00185g

Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Supercomputing Laboratory at King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the support and the computing time. Also, FH Alharbi would like to acknowledge the support provided from the Saudi Data and AI Authority (SDAIA) and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) under SDAIA-KFUPM Joint Research Center for Artificial Intelligence Grant no JRC-AI-RFP-02.

Publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)

Journal
RSC advances

DOI
10.1039/d3ra00185g

PubMed Central ID
PMC10025883

Additional Links
http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=D3RA00185G

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