Conical focusing: mechanism for singular jetting from collapsing drop-impact craters

Abstract
Fast microjets can emerge out of liquid pools from the rebounding of drop-impact craters, or when a bubble bursts at its surface. The fastest jets are the narrowest and are a source of aerosols both from the ocean and from a glass of champagne, of importance to climate and the olfactory senses. The most singular jets, which we observe experimentally at a maximum velocity of 137±4 m s−1 and a diameter of 12 μm, under reduced ambient pressure, are produced when a small dimple forms at the crater bottom and rebounds without pinching off a small bubble. The radial collapse and rebounding of this dimple is purely inertial, but highly sensitive to initial conditions. High-resolution numerical simulations reveal a new focusing mechanism, which drives the fastest jet within a converging conical channel, where an entrained air sheet provides effective slip at the outer boundary of the conically converging flow into the jet. This configuration bypasses any viscous cutoff of the jetting speed and explains the extreme sensitivity to initial conditions observed in detailed experiments of the phenomenon.

Citation
Tian, Y. S., Yang, Z. Q., & Thoroddsen, S. T. (2023). Conical focusing: mechanism for singular jetting from collapsing drop-impact craters. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 958. https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2022.1085

Acknowledgements
This study was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under URF/1/3727-01-01 and BAS/1/1352-01-01. Y.S.T. is also supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CHD (grant no. 300102252109).

Publisher
Cambridge University Press (CUP)

Journal
Journal of Fluid Mechanics

DOI
10.1017/jfm.2022.1085

arXiv
2209.03659

Additional Links
https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0022112022010850/type/journal_article

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