The deposition of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) usually employs harsh conditions that are frequently harmful to soft/organic underlayers. Herein, successful use of an industrial pulsed laser deposition (PLD) tool to directly deposit indium tin oxide (ITO) films on semitransparent vacuum-deposited perovskite solar cells without damage to the device stack is demonstrated. The morphological, electronic, and optical properties of the PLD deposited ITO films are optimized. A direct relation between the PLD chamber pressure and the solar cell performance is obtained. The semitransparent perovskite solar cells prepared exclusively by vacuum-assisted techniques had fill factors of 78% and exceeded 18% in power conversion efficiencies. This demonstrates that the direct deposition of TCO-based top electrodes without protective buffer layers is possible and leads to efficient devices.
Zanoni, K. P. S., Paliwal, A., Hernández-Fenollosa, M. A., Repecaud, P., Morales-Masis, M., & Bolink, H. J. (2022). ITO Top-Electrodes via Industrial-Scale PLD for Efficient Buffer-Layer-Free Semitransparent Perovskite Solar Cells. Advanced Materials Technologies, 2101747. Portico. https://doi.org/10.1002/admt.202101747
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme (Grant agreement No. 834431). The authors acknowledged support from the Comunitat Valenciana (IDIFEDER/2018/061 and PROMETEU/2020/077), as well as by the Ministry of Science and Innovation (MCIN), and the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI): Project PCI2019-111829-2 funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033 and by the European Union; Project CEX2019-000919-M funded by MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033, and the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR-2019-CRG8-4093.2). K.P.S.Z. acknowledged funding from Comunitat Valenciana (APOSTD/2021/368). AP acknowledged his Grisolia grant from the Comunitat Valenciana (GRISOLIAP/2020/134). P-A.R. and M.M.M. acknowledged the financial support from the Netherlands Enterprise Agency under contract SOL18001 of the SOLAR ERA NET CUSTCO project.