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dc.contributor.authorPal, Nilanjan
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Xuan
dc.contributor.authorAli, Muhammad
dc.contributor.authorMandal, Ajay
dc.contributor.authorHoteit, Hussein
dc.identifier.citationPal, N., Zhang, X., Ali, M., Mandal, A., & Hoteit, H. (2022). Carbon dioxide thickening: A review of technological aspects, advances and challenges for oilfield application. Fuel, 122947. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2021.122947
dc.description.abstractThe relatively low density and viscosity of carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical state create several drawbacks, including gravity override, viscous fingering, water production/treatment problems, and poor proppant transport for the petroleum industry. The introduction of CO2 thickeners offers a promising additive technology with sufficient solubility and viscosity enhancement attributes. The current article reviews the technical advances, challenges, and applicability of thickened CO2, particularly for hydrocarbon recovery. Different types of thickeners, including polymers, tailor-made surfactants, and small associating compounds, were investigated in terms of their nature, physicochemical traits, cost, and applications. The molecular weight and concentration, shear rate, co-solvent composition, temperature, and pressure play a significant role in the intermolecular forces and miscibility effect of thickeners in the presence of dense CO2. Binary co-polymers (non-fluorinated non-siloxane materials) and small molecule (associating) compounds are promising options for CO2 thickening owing to their enhanced performance, cost-effectiveness, and low ecological footprint. This study provides a comprehensive review of existing technologies, outline the gaps, potential, and required area for improvement.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors acknowledge the encouragement and technical expertise provided by the Physical Science and Engineering Division. The contribution recognizes the support of Saudi Aramco (Grant OSR: 44436) to King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, Saudi Arabia and Department of Science & Technology, SERB, India (Grant ID: CRG/2020/000828) to Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, India for the article.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsThis is an open access article under the CC BY license.
dc.titleCarbon dioxide thickening: A review of technological aspects, advances and challenges for oilfield application
dc.contributor.departmentAli I. Al-Naimi Petroleum Engineering Research Center (ANPERC)
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science & Technology, Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
dc.contributor.departmentEnergy Resources and Petroleum Engineering Program
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Petroleum Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines) Dhanbad, Dhanbad 826004, India
kaust.personPal, Nilanjan
kaust.personZhang, Xuan
kaust.personAli, Muhammad
kaust.personHoteit, Hussein

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