Weatherscapes : nowcasting heat transfer and water continuity

Abstract
Due to the complex interplay of various meteorological phenomena, simulating weather is a challenging and open research problem. In this contribution, we propose a novel physics-based model that enables simulating weather at interactive rates. By considering atmosphere and pedosphere we can define the hydrologic cycle - and consequently weather - in unprecedented detail. Specifically, our model captures different warm and cold clouds, such as mammatus, hole-punch, multi-layer, and cumulonimbus clouds as well as their dynamic transitions. We also model different precipitation types, such as rain, snow, and graupel by introducing a comprehensive microphysics scheme. The Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process is incorporated into our Kessler-type microphysics formulation covering ice crystal growth occurring in mixed-phase clouds. Moreover, we model the water run-off from the ground surface, the infiltration into the soil, and its subsequent evaporation back to the atmosphere. We account for daily temperature changes, as well as heat transfer between pedosphere and atmosphere leading to a complex feedback loop. Our framework enables us to interactively explore various complex weather phenomena. Our results are assessed visually and validated by simulating weatherscapes for various setups covering different precipitation events and environments, by showcasing the hydrologic cycle, and by reproducing common effects such as Foehn winds. We also provide quantitative evaluations creating high-precipitation cumulonimbus clouds by prescribing atmospheric conditions based on infrared satellite observations. With our model we can generate dynamic 3D scenes of weatherscapes with high visual fidelity and even nowcast real weather conditions as simulations by streaming weather data into our framework.

Citation
Herrera, J. A. A., Hädrich, T., Pałubicki, W., Banuti, D. T., Pirk, S., & Michels, D. L. (2021). Weatherscapes. ACM Transactions on Graphics, 40(6), 1–19. doi:10.1145/3478513.3480532

Acknowledgements
This work was supported and funded by KAUST through the baseline funding of the Computational Sciences Group within the Visual Computing Center. The insightful discussions with Miłosz Makowski and Weronika Skowrońska as well as the reviewers’ valuable comments that improved the manuscript are gratefully acknowledged

Publisher
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

Journal
ACM Transactions on Graphics

DOI
10.1145/3478513.3480532

Additional Links
https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3478513.3480532

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