Microvilli Adhesion: An Alternative Route for Nanoparticle Cell Internalization
KAUST DepartmentBiological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE) Division
Online Publication Date2021-09-29
Print Publication Date2021-10-26
Embargo End Date2022-09-29
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/672044
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AbstractThe cellular uptake of nanoparticles (NPs) represents a critical step in nanomedicine and a crucial point for understanding the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. No specific mechanism of uptake has been identified so far, as the NPs are generally incorporated by the cells through one of the few well-known endocytotic mechanisms. Here, an alternative internalization route mediated by microvilli adhesion is demonstrated. This microvillus-mediated adhesion (MMA) has been observed using ceria and magnetite NPs with a dimension of <40 nm functionalized with polyacrylic acid but not using NPs with a neutral or positive functionalization. Such an adhesion was not cell specific, as it was demonstrated in three different cell lines. MMA was also reduced by modifications of the microvillus lipid rafts, obtained by depleting cholesterol and altering synthesis of sphingolipids. We found a direct relationship between MAA, cell cycle, and density of microvilli. The evidence suggests that MMA differs from the commonly described uptake mechanisms and might represent an interesting alternative approach for selective NP delivery.
CitationSommi, P., Vitali, A., Coniglio, S., Callegari, D., Barbieri, S., Casu, A., … Anselmi-Tamburini, U. (2021). Microvilli Adhesion: An Alternative Route for Nanoparticle Cell Internalization. ACS Nano. doi:10.1021/acsnano.1c03151
SponsorsWe are grateful to A. Ottolenghi, Department of Physics, University of Pavia, for the use of the Attune NxT cytofluorimeter; P. Pallavicini, Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, for the use of DLS; Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerca per la Conservazione del Patrimonio Culturale (CISRiC), University of Pavia, for providing access to HRSEM; C. Di Benedetto, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), for TEM sample preparation and image acquisition; and Centro Grandi Strumenti, University of Pavia, for confocal microscopy and flow cytometry (BD FACSLyric System). We thank U. Laforenza and G. Pellavio, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, for providing us with human mesothelioma cell lines. Part of this work was financially supported by Fondazione Banca del Monte di Lombardia to U.A.-T., as well as by KAUST Baseline funding to A.F.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)