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dc.contributor.authorAbdulrahman Ashy, Ruba
dc.contributor.authorSuttle, Curtis A.
dc.contributor.authorAgusti, Susana
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-14T13:18:59Z
dc.date.available2021-06-14T13:18:59Z
dc.date.issued2021-06-11
dc.date.submitted2021-04-01
dc.identifier.citationAbdulrahman Ashy, R., Suttle, C. A., & Agustí, S. (2021). Moderate Seasonal Dynamics Indicate an Important Role for Lysogeny in the Red Sea. Microorganisms, 9(6), 1269. doi:10.3390/microorganisms9061269
dc.identifier.issn2076-2607
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/microorganisms9061269
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/669577
dc.description.abstractViruses are the most abundant microorganisms in marine environments and viral infections can be either lytic (virulent) or lysogenic (temperate phage) within the host cell. The aim of this study was to quantify viral dynamics (abundance and infection) in the coastal Red Sea, a narrow oligotrophic basin with high surface water temperatures (22–32 °C degrees), high salinity (37.5–41) and continuous high insolation, thus making it a stable and relatively unexplored environment. We quantified viral and environmental changes in the Red Sea (two years) and the occurrence of lysogenic bacteria (induced by mitomycin C) on the second year. Water temperatures ranged from 24.0 to 32.5 °C, and total viral and bacterial abundances ranged from 1.5 to 8.7 × 106 viruses mL−1 and 1.9 to 3.2 × 105 bacteria mL−1, respectively. On average, 12.24% ± 4.8 (SE) of the prophage bacteria could be induced by mitomycin C, with the highest percentage of 55.8% observed in January 2018 when bacterial abundances were low; whereas no induction was measurable in spring when bacterial abundances were highest. Thus, despite the fact that the Red Sea might be perceived as stable, warm and saline, relatively modest changes in seasonal conditions were associated with large swings in the prevalence of lysogeny.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through the baseline research funding provided to Susana Agustí.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to extend our appreciation to Juan Ayala, Gala Gonzalez, and Sebastian Overmans who aid us with laboratory and fieldwork and Danang Prabowo for technical support during our research.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/2076-2607/9/6/1269
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleModerate Seasonal Dynamics Indicate an Important Role for Lysogeny in the Red Sea
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC), Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia.
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalMicroorganisms
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biology, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21493, Saudi Arabia.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartments of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, and Microbiology and Immunology, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute for the Oceans and Fisheries, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
dc.identifier.volume9
dc.identifier.issue6
dc.identifier.pages1269
kaust.personAbdulrahman Ashy, Ruba
kaust.personAgusti, Susana
dc.date.accepted2021-05-13
refterms.dateFOA2021-06-14T13:26:09Z


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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
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