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dc.contributor.authorShen, Pin-Chun
dc.contributor.authorSu, Cong
dc.contributor.authorLin, Yuxuan
dc.contributor.authorChou, Ang-Sheng
dc.contributor.authorCheng, Chao-Ching
dc.contributor.authorPark, Ji-Hoon
dc.contributor.authorChiu, Ming-Hui
dc.contributor.authorLu, Ang-Yu
dc.contributor.authorTang, Hao-Ling
dc.contributor.authorTavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi
dc.contributor.authorPitner, Gregory
dc.contributor.authorJi, Xiang
dc.contributor.authorCai, Zhengyang
dc.contributor.authorMao, Nannan
dc.contributor.authorWang, Jiangtao
dc.contributor.authorTung, Vincent
dc.contributor.authorLi, Ju
dc.contributor.authorBokor, Jeffrey
dc.contributor.authorZettl, Alex
dc.contributor.authorWu, Chih-I
dc.contributor.authorPalacios, Tomás
dc.contributor.authorLi, Lain-Jong
dc.contributor.authorKong, Jing
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-10T12:51:45Z
dc.date.available2021-06-10T12:51:45Z
dc.date.issued2021-05-12
dc.date.submitted2020-07-01
dc.identifier.citationShen, P.-C., Su, C., Lin, Y., Chou, A.-S., Cheng, C.-C., Park, J.-H., … Kong, J. (2021). Ultralow contact resistance between semimetal and monolayer semiconductors. Nature, 593(7858), 211–217. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03472-9
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
dc.identifier.issn1476-4687
dc.identifier.pmid33981050
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41586-021-03472-9
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/669515
dc.description.abstractAdvanced beyond-silicon electronic technology requires both channel materials and also ultralow-resistance contacts to be discovered1,2. Atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductors have great potential for realizing high-performance electronic devices1,3. However, owing to metal-induced gap states (MIGS)4–7, energy barriers at the metal–semiconductor interface—which fundamentally lead to high contact resistance and poor current-delivery capability—have constrained the improvement of two-dimensional semiconductor transistors so far2,8,9. Here we report ohmic contact between semimetallic bismuth and semiconducting monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) where the MIGS are sufficiently suppressed and degenerate states in the TMD are spontaneously formed in contact with bismuth. Through this approach, we achieve zero Schottky barrier height, a contact resistance of 123 ohm micrometres and an on-state current density of 1,135 microamps per micrometre on monolayer MoS2; these two values are, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest and highest yet recorded, respectively. We also demonstrate that excellent ohmic contacts can be formed on various monolayer semiconductors, including MoS2, WS2 and WSe2. Our reported contact resistances are a substantial improvement for two-dimensional semiconductors, and approach the quantum limit. This technology unveils the potential of high-performance monolayer transistors that are on par with state-of-the-art three-dimensional semiconductors, enabling further device downscaling and extending Moore’s law.
dc.description.sponsorshipP.-C.S., J.B. and J.K. acknowledge financial support from the Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science (NSF award no. 0939514), which provided funding for development of high-performance monolayer TMD transistors. P.-C.S., Y.L., J.-H.P., A.-Y.L., T.P. and J.K. acknowledge the US Army Research Office through the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT, under cooperative agreement no. W911NF-18-2-0048. C.S., J.-H.P., J.W. and J.K. acknowledge the support from the US Army Research Office (ARO) under grant no. W911NF-18-1-0431. C.S. is currently supported by the Kavli Energy NanoScience Institute/Heising–Simons Fellowship, Berkeley, California, USA. C.S. and A.Z. are supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, of the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05-CH11231, within the sp2-Bonded Materials Program (KC2207), which provided for TEM characterizations. C.S. and A.Z. are further supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. DMR-1807233, which provided funding for development of TEM image-processing methods. J.L. acknowledges support by the Office of Naval Research MURI through grant no. N00014-17-1-2661. Y.L. and J.B. acknowledge support by the Office of Naval Research MURI programme N00014-16-1-2921, and the NSF award RAISE TAQS under grant no. DMR-1839098. Y.L. and N.M. acknowledge support by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES) under award DE-SC0020042. A.-S.C. and C.-I.W. acknowledge support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST 108-2622-8-002-016). J.W. and J.K. acknowledge support from the joint development project (JDP) from TSMC. V.T. and M.-H.C. are indebted to the support from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under award no: OSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079. H.-L.T. acknowledges partial support from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Taiwan (MOST-108-2917-I-564-036). We acknowledge H.-S.P. Wong for guidance. We thank Y. Guo, E. Shi and H. Wang for technical assistance with materials characterizations, and Y.-T. Shao for discussions on SAED pattern simulation.
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03472-9
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Nature
dc.titleUltralow contact resistance between semimetal and monolayer semiconductors
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMaterial Science and Engineering Program
dc.identifier.journalNature
dc.rights.embargodate2021-11-12
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionMaterials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionKavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
dc.contributor.institutionGraduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
dc.contributor.institutionCorporate Research, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), Hsinchu, Taiwan
dc.contributor.institutionCorporate Research, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC), San Jose, CA, USA
dc.identifier.volume593
dc.identifier.issue7858
dc.identifier.pages211-217
kaust.personChiu, Ming-Hui
kaust.personTang, Hao-Ling
kaust.personTung, Vincent
kaust.grant.numberOSR-2018-CARF/CCF-3079
dc.date.accepted2021-03-18
dc.identifier.eid2-s2.0-85105807639
refterms.dateFOA2021-06-10T13:04:50Z
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitCARF
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitCCF
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitOffice of Naval Research
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitOffice of Sponsored Research (OSR)


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