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dc.contributor.authorEl-Khaled, Yusuf C.
dc.contributor.authorRoth, Florian
dc.contributor.authorRadecker, Nils
dc.contributor.authorTilstra, Arjen
dc.contributor.authorKarcher, Denis B.
dc.contributor.authorKürten, Benjamin
dc.contributor.authorJones, Burton
dc.contributor.authorVoolstra, Christian R.
dc.contributor.authorWild, Christian
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-06T12:28:43Z
dc.date.available2021-06-06T12:28:43Z
dc.date.issued2021-06-03
dc.date.submitted2020-12-21
dc.identifier.citationEl-Khaled, Y. C., Roth, F., Rädecker, N., Tilstra, A., Karcher, D. B., Kürten, B., … Wild, C. (2021). Nitrogen fixation and denitrification activity differ between coral- and algae-dominated Red Sea reefs. Scientific Reports, 11(1). doi:10.1038/s41598-021-90204-8
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41598-021-90204-8
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/669405
dc.description.abstractAbstractCoral reefs experience phase shifts from coral- to algae-dominated benthic communities, which could affect the interplay between processes introducing and removing bioavailable nitrogen. However, the magnitude of such processes, i.e., dinitrogen (N2) fixation and denitrification levels, and their responses to phase shifts remain unknown in coral reefs. We assessed both processes for the dominant species of six benthic categories (hard corals, soft corals, turf algae, coral rubble, biogenic rock, and reef sands) accounting for > 98% of the benthic cover of a central Red Sea coral reef. Rates were extrapolated to the relative benthic cover of the studied organisms in co-occurring coral- and algae-dominated areas of the same reef. In general, benthic categories with high N2 fixation exhibited low denitrification activity. Extrapolated to the respective reef area, turf algae and coral rubble accounted for > 90% of overall N2 fixation, whereas corals contributed to more than half of reef denitrification. Total N2 fixation was twice as high in algae- compared to coral-dominated areas, whereas denitrification levels were similar. We conclude that algae-dominated reefs promote new nitrogen input through enhanced N2 fixation and comparatively low denitrification. The subsequent increased nitrogen availability could support net productivity, resulting in a positive feedback loop that increases the competitive advantage of algae over corals in reefs that experienced a phase shift.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe are grateful to Rodrigo Villalobos and João Cúrdia for their support during fieldwork. Many thanks also to Carina Kitir, Söphiä Tobler and Jän Krause for their support in developing the figures, as well as to Najeh Kharbatia for technical support with GC. We thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. This work was funded by the German Research Association (DFG Projects: Wi 2677/9-1 and Wi 2677/16-1) to CW and King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) baseline funding to BHJ and CRV.
dc.description.sponsorshipOpen Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-90204-8
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0
dc.titleNitrogen fixation and denitrification activity differ between coral- and algae-dominated Red Sea reefs
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.contributor.departmentReef Genomics Lab
dc.identifier.journalScientific Reports
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionMarine Ecology Department, Faculty of Biology and Chemistry, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
dc.contributor.institutionBaltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
dc.contributor.institutionFaculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.
dc.contributor.institutionLaboratory for Biological Geochemistry, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
dc.contributor.institutionAustralian National Centre for the Public Awareness of Science, Australian National University, ACT, Canberra 2601, Australia.
dc.contributor.institutionProject Management Jülich, Jülich Research Centre GmbH, 18069 Rostock, Germany.
dc.identifier.volume11
dc.identifier.issue1
kaust.personRoth, Florian
kaust.personRadecker, Nils
kaust.personKürten, Benjamin
kaust.personJones, Burton
kaust.personVoolstra, Christian R.
dc.date.accepted2021-05-07
refterms.dateFOA2021-06-06T12:29:56Z
dc.date.published-online2021-06-03
dc.date.published-print2021-12


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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder