Early Chemistry of Nicotine Degradation in Heat-Not-Burn Smoking Devices and Conventional Cigarettes: Implications for Users and Second- and Third-Hand Smokers
AuthorsChavarrio Cañas, Javier Eduardo
Monge Palacios, Manuel
Grajales Gonzalez, Edwing
KAUST DepartmentClean Combustion Research Center (CCRC), Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
Clean Combustion Research Center
Physical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
Chemical Engineering Program
Embargo End Date2022-04-09
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/668836
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractNicotine exposure results in health risks not only for smokers but also for second- and third-hand smokers. Unraveling nicotine's degradation mechanism and the harmful chemicals that are produced under different conditions is vital to assess exposure risks. We performed a theoretical study to describe the early chemistry of nicotine degradation by investigating two important reactions that nicotine can undergo: hydrogen abstraction by hydroxyl radicals and unimolecular dissociation. The former contributes to the control of the degradation mechanism below 800 K due to a non-Arrhenius kinetics, which implies an enhancement of reactivity as temperature decreases. The latter becomes important at higher temperatures due to its larger activation energy. This change in the degradation mechanism is expected to affect the composition of vapors inhaled by smokers and room occupants. Conventional cigarettes, which operate at temperatures higher than 1000 K, are more prone to yield harmful pyridinyl radicals via nicotine dissociation, while nicotine in electronic cigarettes and vaporizers, with operating temperatures below 600 K, will be more likely degraded by hydroxyl radicals, resulting in a vapor with a different composition. Although low-temperature nicotine delivery devices have been claimed to be less harmful due to their nonburning operating conditions, the non-Arrhenius kinetics that we observed for the degradation mechanism below 873 K suggests that nicotine degradation may be more rapidly initiated as temperature is reduced, indicating that these devices may be more harmful than it is commonly assumed.
CitationChavarrio Cañas, J. E., Monge-Palacios, M., Grajales-González, E., & Sarathy, S. M. (2021). Early Chemistry of Nicotine Degradation in Heat-Not-Burn Smoking Devices and Conventional Cigarettes: Implications for Users and Second- and Third-Hand Smokers. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. doi:10.1021/acs.jpca.1c01650
SponsorsThe research reported in this publication was supported by funding from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST).
We express thanks for the resources of the Supercomputing Laboratory at KAUST. We are grateful to Marcus Hanwell, Chris Harris, and Alessandro Genova for kindly releasing their Open Chemistry Python package and open source scripts to build our molecular structures.
PublisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jpca.1c01650.
- Have combustible cigarettes met their match? The nicotine delivery profiles and harmful constituent exposures of second-generation and third-generation electronic cigarette users.
- Authors: Wagener TL, Floyd EL, Stepanov I, Driskill LM, Frank SG, Meier E, Leavens EL, Tackett AP, Molina N, Queimado L
- Issue date: 2017 Mar
- Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.
- Authors: D'Ruiz CD, Graff DW, Robinson E
- Issue date: 2016 Jul 11
- Heat-not-burn tobacco products: an emerging threat to cardiovascular health.
- Authors: Fried ND, Gardner JD
- Issue date: 2020 Dec 1
- Low Nicotine Content Descriptors Reduce Perceived Health Risks and Positive Cigarette Ratings in Participants Using Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes.
- Authors: Denlinger-Apte RL, Joel DL, Strasser AA, Donny EC
- Issue date: 2017 Oct 1
- Comparison of Free Radical Levels in the Aerosol from Conventional Cigarettes, Electronic Cigarettes, and Heat-Not-Burn Tobacco Products.
- Authors: Shein M, Jeschke G
- Issue date: 2019 Jun 17