A single test approach for accurate and sensitive detection and taxonomic characterization of Trypanosomes by comprehensive analysis of ITS1 amplicons
KAUST DepartmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/668675
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AbstractAbstractThe World Health Organization has targeted stopping the transmission of Human African Trypanosomiasis by 2030. To achieve this, better tools are urgently required to identify and monitor Trypanosome infections in human, animals, and tsetse fly vectors. This study presents a single test approach for detection and identification of Trypanosomes and their comprehensive characterization at species and sub-group level. Our method uses newly designed ITS1 PCR primers (a widely used method for detection of African Trypanosomes, amplifying the ITS1 region of ribosomal RNA genes) coupled to Illumina sequencing of the amplicon. The protocol is based on the widely used Illumina’s 16s bacterial metagenomic analysis procedure that makes use of multiplex PCR and dual indexing. We analyzed wild tsetse flies collected from Zambia and Zimbabwe. Our results show that the traditional method for Trypanosome species detection based on band size comparisons on a gel is unable to distinguish between T. vivax and T. godfreyi accurately. Additionally, this approach shows increased sensitivity of detection at species level. Through phylogenetic analysis, we identified Trypanosomes at species and sub-group level without the need for any additional tests. Our results show T. congolense Kilifi sub-group is more closely related to T. simiae than to other T. congolense sub-groups. This agrees with previous studies using satellite DNA and 18s RNA analysis. While current classification does not list any sub-groups for T. vivax and T. godfreyi, we observed distinct subgroups for these species. Interestingly, sequences matching T. congolense Tsavo (now classified as T. simiae Tsavo) clusters distinctly from the rest of the T. simiae Tsavo sequences suggesting that the Nannomonas group is more divergent than currently thought thus the need for a better classification criteria. This approach has the potential for refining classification of Trypanosomes and provide detailed molecular epidemiology information useful for surveillance and transmission control efforts.Author summaryDetection of Trypanosomes in the tsetse flies plays an important role in the control of African trypanosomiasis by providing information on circulating Trypanosome species in a given area. We have developed a method that combines multiplex PCR and next-generation sequencing for Trypanosome species detection. The method is based on the widely used bacterial metagenomic analysis protocol and uses a modular, two-step PCR process followed by sequencing of all amplicons in a single run, making sequencing of amplicons more efficient and cost-effective when dealing with large sample sizes. As part of this approach, we designed novel primers for amplifying the ITS1 region of the Trypanosome rRNA gene that is more sensitive than conventional primers. Identification of Trypanosome species is based on BLAST searches against the constantly updated NCBI’s nt database, which facilitates the identification of Trypanosome subgroups. Our approach is more accurate than traditional gel-based analysis and shows how the latter is prone to misidentification. It is also sensitive and is able to discriminate between subgroups within Trypanosome species. Applied as an epidemiological tool, it has the potential to provide new, comprehensive and more accurate information on vector-pathogen-host interconnections which are key in the control and management of African trypanosomiasis.
CitationGaithuma, A., Yamagishi, J., Martinelli, A., Hayashida, K., Kawai, N., Marsela, M., & Sugimoto, C. (2018). A single test approach for accurate and sensitive detection and taxonomic characterization of Trypanosomes by comprehensive analysis of ITS1 amplicons. doi:10.1101/418343
PublisherCold Spring Harbor Laboratory