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dc.contributor.authorGhostine, Rabih
dc.contributor.authorGharamti, Mohamad
dc.contributor.authorHassrouny, Sally
dc.contributor.authorHoteit, Ibrahim
dc.date.accessioned2021-04-11T06:33:58Z
dc.date.available2021-04-11T06:33:58Z
dc.date.issued2021-03-17
dc.date.submitted2021-01-29
dc.identifier.citationGhostine, R., Gharamti, M., Hassrouny, S., & Hoteit, I. (2021). An Extended SEIR Model with Vaccination for Forecasting the COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter. Mathematics, 9(6), 636. doi:10.3390/math9060636
dc.identifier.issn2227-7390
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/math9060636
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/668626
dc.description.abstractIn this paper, an extended SEIR model with a vaccination compartment is proposed to simulate the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread in Saudi Arabia. The model considers seven stages of infection: susceptible (S), exposed (E), infectious (I), quarantined (Q), recovered (R), deaths (D), and vaccinated (V). Initially, a mathematical analysis is carried out to illustrate the non-negativity, boundedness, epidemic equilibrium, existence, and uniqueness of the endemic equilibrium, and the basic reproduction number of the proposed model. Such numerical models can be, however, subject to various sources of uncertainties, due to an imperfect description of the biological processes governing the disease spread, which may strongly limit their forecasting skills. A data assimilation method, mainly, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), is then used to constrain the model outputs and its parameters with available data. We conduct joint state-parameters estimation experiments assimilating daily data into the proposed model using the EnKF in order to enhance the model’s forecasting skills. Starting from the estimated set of model parameters, we then conduct short-term predictions in order to assess the predicability range of the model. We apply the proposed assimilation system on real data sets from Saudi Arabia. The numerical results demonstrate the capability of the proposed model in achieving accurate prediction of the epidemic development up to two-week time scales. Finally, we investigate the effect of vaccination on the spread of the pandemic.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research received no external funding.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/2227-7390/9/6/636
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleAn extended seir model with vaccination for forecasting the covid-19 pandemic in saudi arabia using an ensemble kalman filter
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentEarth Fluid Modeling and Prediction Group
dc.contributor.departmentEarth Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalMathematics
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Mathematics, Kuwait College of Science and Technology, Doha, 35001, Kuwait
dc.contributor.institutionNational Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 80305, USA
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Science, Kuwait College of Science and Technology, Doha, 35001, Kuwait
dc.identifier.volume9
dc.identifier.issue6
dc.identifier.pages636
kaust.personHoteit, Ibrahim
dc.date.accepted2021-01-25
dc.identifier.eid2-s2.0-85103510634
refterms.dateFOA2021-04-11T06:38:28Z


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