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dc.contributor.authorBalaji, Bharathan
dc.contributor.authorBhattacharya, Arka
dc.contributor.authorFierro, Gabriel
dc.contributor.authorGao, Jingkun
dc.contributor.authorGluck, Joshua
dc.contributor.authorHong, Dezhi
dc.contributor.authorJohansen, Aslak
dc.contributor.authorKoh, Jason
dc.contributor.authorPloennigs, Joern
dc.contributor.authorAgarwal, Yuvraj
dc.contributor.authorBergés, Mario
dc.contributor.authorCuller, David
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Rajesh K.
dc.contributor.authorKjærgaard, Mikkel Baun
dc.contributor.authorSrivastava, Mani
dc.contributor.authorWhitehouse, Kamin
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-09T10:33:00Z
dc.date.available2021-03-09T10:33:00Z
dc.date.issued2018-09
dc.identifier.citationBalaji, B., Bhattacharya, A., Fierro, G., Gao, J., Gluck, J., Hong, D., … Whitehouse, K. (2018). Brick : Metadata schema for portable smart building applications. Applied Energy, 226, 1273–1292. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.091
dc.identifier.issn0306-2619
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.091
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/667990
dc.description.abstractBuildings account for 32% of worldwide energy usage. A new regime of exciting new “applications” that span a distributed fabric of sensors, actuators and humans has emerged to improve building energy efficiency and operations management. These applications leverage the technological advances in embedded sensing, processing, networking and methods by which they can be coupled with supervisory control and data acquisition systems deployed in modern buildings and with users on mobile wireless platforms. There are, however, several technical challenges to confront before such a vision of smart building applications and cyber-physical systems can be realized. The sensory data produced by these systems need significant curation before it can be used meaningfully. This is largely a manual, cost-prohibitive task and hence such solutions rarely experience widespread adoption due to the lack of a common descriptive schema. Recent attempts have sought to address this through data standards and metadata schemata but fall short in capturing the richness of relationships required by applications. This paper describes Brick, a uniform metadata schema for representing buildings that builds upon recent advances in the area. Our schema defines a concrete ontology for sensors, subsystems and the relationships between them, which enables portable applications. We demonstrate the completeness and effectiveness of Brick by using it to represent the entire vendor-specific sensor metadata of six diverse buildings across different campuses, comprising 17,700 data points, and running eight unmodified energy efficiency applications on these buildings.
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation [Grant Nos. CPS-1239552, NSF-1636879, IIS-1636916, CSR-1526237, CNS-1526841, NSF-1305362]; the U.S. Department of Energy [Grant No. DE-EE0006353]; the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology award [Grant No. #OSR-2015-Sensors-2707]; the Innovation Fund Denmark [Grant No. 4106-00003B]; the EU H2020 [Grant No. 676760]; and Intel Corporation.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0306261918302162
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Applied Energy. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Applied Energy, [226, , (2018-09)] DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.091 . © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.titleBrick : Metadata schema for portable smart building applications
dc.typeArticle
dc.identifier.journalApplied Energy
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionUCLA, United States
dc.contributor.institutionUC Berkeley, United States
dc.contributor.institutionCarnegie Mellon University, United States
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Virginia, United States
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Southern Denmark, Denmark
dc.contributor.institutionUC San Diego, United States
dc.contributor.institutionIBM Research, Ireland
dc.identifier.volume226
dc.identifier.pages1273-1292
kaust.grant.numberOSR-2015-Sensors-2707
dc.identifier.eid2-s2.0-85042376322
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitOSR


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