Brain Glycogen Metabolism: A Possible Link Between Sleep Disturbances, Headache And Depression

Embargo End Date
2022-01-01

Type
Article

Authors
Petit, J.-.M.
Eren-Koçak, E.
Karatas, H.
Magistretti, Pierre J.
Dalkara, T.

KAUST Department
Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE) Division
Bioscience Program
KAUST Smart Health Initiative
Office of the President

Online Publication Date
2021-01-29

Print Publication Date
2021-10

Date
2021-01-29

Submitted Date
2020-06-23

Abstract
The functions of sleep and its links with neuropsychiatric diseases have long been questioned. Among the numerous hypotheses on sleep function, early studies proposed that sleep helps to replenish glycogen stores consumed during waking. Later studies found increased brain glycogen after sleep deprivation, leading to “glycogenetic” hypothesis, which states that there is a parallel increase in synthesis and utilization of glycogen during wakefulness, whereas decrease in the excitatory transmission creates an imbalance causing accumulation of glycogen during sleep. Glycogen is a vital energy reservoir to match the synaptic demand particularly for re-uptake of potassium and glutamate during intense glutamatergic transmission. Therefore, sleep deprivation-induced transcriptional changes may trigger migraine by reducing glycogen availability, which slows clearance of extracellular potassium and glutamate, hence, creates susceptibility to cortical spreading depolarization, the electrophysiological correlate of migraine aura. Interestingly, chronic stress accompanied by increased glucocorticoid levels and locus coeruleus activity and leading to mood disorders in which sleep disturbances are prevalent, also affects brain glycogen turnover via glucocorticoids, noradrenaline, serotonin and adenosine. These observations altogether suggest that inadequate astrocytic glycogen turnover may be one of the mechanisms linking migraine, mood disorders and sleep.

Citation
Petit, J.-. M., Eren-Koçak, E., Karatas, H., Magistretti, P., & Dalkara, T. (2021). Brain Glycogen Metabolism: A Possible Link Between Sleep Disturbances, Headache And Depression. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 101449. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101449

Acknowledgements
JMP is supported by the NCCR-Synapsy Phase-3 from the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant 51NF40-185897). TD’s research is supported by a grant from Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK 118S435).

Publisher
Elsevier BV

Journal
Sleep Medicine Reviews

DOI
10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101449

Additional Links
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1087079221000344

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