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dc.contributor.authorOhayon, David
dc.contributor.authorSavva, Achilleas
dc.contributor.authordu, weiyuan
dc.contributor.authorPaulsen, Bryan D.
dc.contributor.authorUguz, Ilke
dc.contributor.authorAshraf, Raja
dc.contributor.authorRivnay, Jonathan
dc.contributor.authorMcCulloch, Iain
dc.contributor.authorInal, Sahika
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-20T12:26:51Z
dc.date.available2021-01-20T12:26:51Z
dc.date.issued2021-01-13
dc.date.submitted2020-10-16
dc.identifier.citationOhayon, D., Savva, A., Du, W., Paulsen, B. D., Uguz, I., Ashraf, R. S., … Inal, S. (2021). Influence of Side Chains on the n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistor Performance. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. doi:10.1021/acsami.0c18599
dc.identifier.issn1944-8244
dc.identifier.issn1944-8252
dc.identifier.pmid33439636
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acsami.0c18599
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/666952
dc.description.abstractn-Type (electron transporting) polymers can make suitable interfaces to transduce biological events that involve the generation of electrons. However, n-type polymers that are stable when electrochemically doped in aqueous media are relatively scarce, and the performance of the existing ones lags behind their p-type (hole conducting) counterparts. Here, we report a new family of donor-acceptor-type polymers based on a naphthalene-1,4,5,8-tetracarboxylic-diimide-bi-thiophene (NDI-T2) backbone where the NDI unit always bears an ethylene glycol (EG) side chain. We study how small variations in the side chains tethered to the acceptor as well as the donor unit affect the performance of the polymer films in the state-of-the-art bioelectronic device, the organic electrochemical transistor (OECT). First, we find that substitution of the T2 core with an electron-withdrawing group (i.e., methoxy) or an EG side chain leads to ambipolar charge transport properties and causes significant changes in film microstructure, which overall impairs the n-type OECT performance. We thus show that the best n-type OECT performer is the polymer that has no substitution on the T2 unit. Next, we evaluate the distance of the oxygen from the NDI unit as a design parameter by varying the length of the carbon spacer placed between the EG unit and the backbone. We find that the distance of the EG from the backbone affects the film order and crystallinity, and thus, the electron mobility. Consequently, our work reports the best-performing NDI-T2-based n-type OECT material to date, i.e., the polymer without the T2 substitution and bearing a six-carbon spacer between the EG and the NDI units. Our work provides new guidelines for the side-chain engineering of n-type polymers for OECTs and insights on the structure-performance relationships for mixed ionic-electronic conductors, crucial for devices where the film operates at the aqueous electrolyte interface.
dc.description.sponsorshipB.D.P. and J.R. gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, grant no. NSF DMR-1751308. Special thanks are due to Joseph Strzalka and Qingteng Zhang for beam line assistance. This research used resources of the Advanced Photon Source, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility operated for the DOE Office of Science by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This work was partially supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. OSR-2016-CRG5-3003 and OSR-2018-CRG7-3709.
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
dc.relation.urlhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c18599
dc.rightsThis document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c18599.
dc.titleInfluence of Side Chains on the n-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistor Performance
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentKAUST Solar Center (KSC)
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
dc.rights.embargodate2022-01-13
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, United States
dc.contributor.institutionSimpson Querrey Institute, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, United States
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TA, United Kingdom
kaust.personOhayon, David
kaust.personSavva, Achilleas
kaust.personDu, Weiyuan
kaust.personAshraf, Raja
kaust.personMcCulloch, Iain
kaust.personInal, Sahika
kaust.grant.numberOSR-2016-CRG5-3003
kaust.grant.numberOSR-2018-CRG7-3709
dc.date.accepted2020-12-25
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitOffice of Sponsored Research (OSR)


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