A motion repeating itself is referred to as periodic or oscillatory motion. An object in such motion oscillates about an equilibrium position due to a restoring force or torque. Such force or torque tends to restore (return) the system toward its equilibrium position no matter in which direction the system is displaced. This motion is important to study many phenomena including electromagnetic waves, alternating current circuits, and molecules. For a vibration to occur, two quantities are necessary to be present—stiffness and inertia.
Alrasheed, S. (2019). Oscillatory Motion. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation, 155–171. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-15195-9_10