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dc.contributor.authorBorsa, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorWilliams, Collin T.
dc.contributor.authorMcivor, Ashlie
dc.contributor.authorHoareau, Thierry B.
dc.contributor.authorBerumen, Michael L.
dc.identifier.citationBorsa, P., Williams, C. T., McIvor, A. J., Hoareau, T. B., & Berumen, M. L. (2021). Neotype designation and re-description of Forsskål’s reticulate whipray Himantura uarnak. Marine Biodiversity, 51(2). doi:10.1007/s12526-021-01180-1
dc.description.abstractA continuing impediment to the taxonomy of the reticulate whipray Himantura spp. species complex is the absence of a type specimen for H. uarnak (Gmelin [ex Forsskål], 1789). Here, reticulate whipray specimens were sampled from the Jeddah region in the Red Sea, the assumed type locality of H. uarnak, and characterized genetically at the cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) locus. One of these specimens now in the fish collection of the California Academy of Sciences was designated as neotype. The maximum-likelihood phylogeny of all available CO1 gene sequences from the genus Himantura had the following topology: ((H. leoparda, H. uarnak), (H. undulata, (Himantura sp. 2, (H. australis + Himantura sp. 1))), H. tutul), where H. uarnak haplotypes formed a distinct lineage sister to H. leoparda. Based on these CO1 gene sequences, the geographic distribution of H. uarnak includes the eastern Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the East African coast, and the Arabian Sea. At least one lineage in the reticulate whipray species complex remains to be named.
dc.description.sponsorshipForemost, thanks are due to M. Tietbohl for donating tissue samples, assisting in field collections, and providing laboratory assistance. Additionally, we are grateful to J. Spaet and members of KAUST’s Reef Ecology Lab for their support at various stages of this project; to D. Catania and L.A. Rocha for allocating a CAS collection number to the neotype of H. uarnak; to X. Chen for sharing reticulate whipray sequences; to M. Bennett-Smith for sharing excellent photographs; to S. Bogorodsky, H. Debelius, and R. Fricke for insightful discussions about the taxonomy and nomenclature of reticulate whiprays; to G. Lim (ICZN) for confirming the validity of the present neotype designation. Useful taxonomic literature was communicated to us by C.-W. Chang, K.-N. Shen, and an anonymous reviewer. Several books including P. Forsskål’s Descriptiones animalium, J.F. Gmelin’s Systema naturae, and Rüppell’s Fische des rothen Meeres were accessed from the Biodiversity Heritage Library website (
dc.description.sponsorshipSupport to this study was provided by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through baseline funding to MLB and Institut de recherche pour le développement, Marseille to PB.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Marine Biodiversity
dc.titleNeotype designation and re-description of Forsskål’s reticulate whipray Himantura uarnak
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentDivision of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering, Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.contributor.departmentReef Ecology Lab
dc.identifier.journalMarine Biodiversity
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut de recherche pour le développement, IRD-UMR 250 ‘Écologie marine tropicale des océans Pacifique et Indien’, 34394 Montpellier, France.
dc.contributor.institutionMARE - Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Agência Regional para o Desenvolvimento da Investigação Tecnologia e Inovação (ARDITI), Edifício Madeira Tecnopolo, Caminho da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal.
dc.contributor.institutionReneco International Wildlife Consultants LLC, Al Reem Island, P.O. Box 61741, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
kaust.personWilliams, Collin Taylor
kaust.personMcIvor, Ashlie Jane
kaust.personBerumen, Michael L.
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitReef Ecology Lab
kaust.acknowledged.supportUnitBaseline funding

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