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dc.contributor.authorRehman, Zahid Ur
dc.contributor.authorKhojah, Bayan
dc.contributor.authorLeiknes, TorOve
dc.contributor.authorAlsogair, Safiya
dc.contributor.authorAlsomali, Mona
dc.date.accessioned2020-09-10T06:01:15Z
dc.date.available2020-09-10T06:01:15Z
dc.date.issued2020-09-04
dc.date.submitted2020-06-17
dc.identifier.citationRehman, Z. U., Khojah, B., Leiknes, T., Alsogair, S., & Alsomali, M. (2020). Removal of Bacteria and Organic Carbon by an Integrated Ultrafiltration—Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant. Membranes, 10(9), 223. doi:10.3390/membranes10090223
dc.identifier.issn2077-0375
dc.identifier.pmid32899597
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/membranes10090223
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/665054
dc.description.abstractFouling caused by organic matter and bacteria remains a significant challenge for the membrane-based desalination industry. Fouling decreases the permeate quality and membrane performance and also increases energy demands. Here, we quantified the amount of organic matter and bacteria at several stages along the water-treatment train of an integrated ultrafiltration–nanofiltration seawater treatment pilot plant. We quantified the organic matter, in terms of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Assimilable Organic Carbon (AOC), and evaluated its composition using Liquid Chromatography for Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD). The bacterial cells were counted using Bactiquant. We found that ultrafiltration (UF) was effective at removing bacterial cells (99.7%) but not TOC. By contrast, nanofiltration (NF) successfully removed both TOC (95%) and bacterial cells. However, the NF permeate showed higher amounts of AOC than seawater. LC-OCD analysis suggested that the AOC was mostly composed of low molecular weight neutral substances. Furthermore, we found that the cleaning of the UF membrane using chemically enhanced backwash reduced the amount of AOC released into the UF permeate. By implementing the cleaning-in-place of the NF membrane, the pressure drop was restored to the normal level. Our results show that the UF and NF membrane cleaning regimes investigated in this study improved membrane performance. However, AOC remained the hardest-to-treat fraction of organic carbon. AOC should, therefore, be monitored closely and regularly to mitigate biofouling in downstream processes.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under award number BAS/1/1061-01-01.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/2077-0375/10/9/223
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleRemoval of Bacteria and Organic Carbon by an Integrated Ultrafiltration—Nanofiltration Desalination Pilot Plant
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.identifier.journalMembranes
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.identifier.volume10
dc.identifier.issue9
dc.identifier.pages223
kaust.personRehman, Zahid Ur
kaust.personKhojah, Bayan
kaust.personLeiknes, TorOve
kaust.personAlsogair, Safiya Hassan
kaust.personAlsomali, Mona Ismael Ibrahim
kaust.grant.numberBAS/1/1061-01-01
dc.date.accepted2020-07-07
refterms.dateFOA2020-09-10T06:01:42Z


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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.
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