AquaE-lite Hybrid-Solar-Cell Receiver-Modality for Energy-Autonomous Terrestrial and Underwater Internet-of-Things

Abstract
Our goal is to develop an energy-autonomous solar cell receiver that can be integrated with a variety of smart devices to implement the Internet of Things in next-generation applications. This paper details efforts to develop such a prototype, called AquaE-lite. Owing to the capability of detecting low-intensity optical signals, 20-m and 30-m long-distance lighting and optical wireless communication with data rates of 1.6 Mbit/s and 1.2 Mbit/s have been achieved on a laboratory testbed, respectively. Moreover, field trials on an outdoor solar cell testbed and a port (turbid water) of the Red Sea have been conducted. Under bright sunlight, energy autonomy and 1.2-Mbit/s optical wireless communication over a transmission distance of 15 m have been implemented, which demonstrated that AquaE-lite with an elaborate receiver circuit has excellent performance in energy harvesting and resistance to background noise. In a more challenging underwater environment, 1.2-Mbit/s signals were successfully received over a transmission distance of 2 m. It indicates that energy-autonomous AquaE-lite with large detection area has promising prospects in future underwater mobile sensor networks to significantly relieve the requirement of pointing, acquisition and tracking while resolving the energy issues.

Citation
Kong, M., Lin, J., Guo, Y., Sun, X., Sait, M., Alkhazragi, O., … Ooi, B. S. (2020). AquaE-lite Hybrid-Solar-Cell Receiver-Modality for Energy-Autonomous Terrestrial and Underwater Internet-of-Things. IEEE Photonics Journal, 1–1. doi:10.1109/jphot.2020.3013995

Acknowledgements
This study was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under funding codes BAS/1/1614-01-01, KCR/1/2081-01-01, KCR/1/4114-01-01, and GEN/1/6607-01-01. The authors further acknowledge the access of the New Energy Oasis (NEO) outdoor testing facilities at KAUST and the KAUST harbor.

Publisher
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Journal
IEEE Photonics Journal

DOI
10.1109/JPHOT.2020.3013995

Additional Links
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9158005/https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9158005https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/4563994/4814557/09158005.pdf

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