Interaction of the Vertical Profile of Dust Aerosols with Land/sea Breezes over the Eastern Coast of the Red Sea from LIDAR and High-resolution WRF-Chem Simulations
KAUST DepartmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
Earth Science and Engineering Program
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/664450
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Abstract<p>With the advances in modeling approaches, and the application of satellite and ground-based data in dust-related research, our understanding of the dust cycle is significantly improved in recent decades. However, two aspects of the dust cycle, the vertical profiles and diurnal cycles of dust aerosols have not been understood adequately, mainly due to the sparsity of observations. A micro-pulse LIDAR has been operating at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) campus located on the east coast of the Red Sea (22.3N, 39.1E), measuring the backscattering from atmospheric aerosols at a high temporal resolution for several years since 2015. It is the only operating LIDAR system over the Arabian Peninsula. We use this LIDAR data together with other collocated observations and high-resolution WRF-Chem model simulations to study the 3-d structure of aerosols, with a focus on dust over the Red Sea Arabian coastal plains. </p><p>Firstly, we investigate the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction and concentration in terms of their seasonal and diurnal variability. Secondly, using the hourly model output and observations, we study the diurnal cycle of aerosols over the site. Thirdly, we explore the interactions between dust aerosols and land/sea breezes, which are the critical components of the local diurnal circulation in the region. </p><p>We found a substantial variation in the vertical profile of aerosols in different seasons. There is also a marked difference in the daytime and nighttime vertical distribution of aerosols in the study site, as shown by LIDAR data. A prominent dust layer is observed at ~5-7km at night in the LIDAR data, corresponding to the long-range transported dust of non-local origin. The vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are consistently reproduced in LIDAR, MERRA-2 reanalysis, and CALIOP data, as well as in WRF-Chem simulations in all seasons. Our results show that the sea breezes are much deeper (~1km) than the land breezes (~200m), and both of them prominently affect the distribution of dust aerosols over the study site. Sea breezes mainly trap the dust aerosols near the coast, brought by the northeasterly trade winds from inland deserts, causing elevated dust maxima at the height of ~1.5km. Also, sea and land breezes intensify dust emissions from the coastal region in daytime and nighttime, respectively. Such dust emissions caused by sea breezes and land breezes are most active in spring and winter. Finally, WRF-Chem successfully captures the onset, demise, and the height of some large-scale dust events as compared to LIDAR data qualitatively. </p>
CitationParajuli, S., Stenchikov, G., Ukhov, A., & Shevchenko, I. (2020). Interaction of the Vertical Profile of Dust Aerosols with Land/sea Breezes over the Eastern Coast of the Red Sea from LIDAR and High-resolution WRF-Chem Simulations. doi:10.5194/egusphere-egu2020-2077
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