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dc.contributor.authorSingya, Praveen Kumar
dc.contributor.authorShaik, Parvez
dc.contributor.authorKumar, Nagendra
dc.contributor.authorBhatia, Vimal
dc.contributor.authorAlouini, Mohamed-Slim
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-19T09:23:03Z
dc.date.available2020-05-19T09:23:03Z
dc.date.issued2020-04-30
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/662873
dc.description.abstractAs the research on beyond 5G heats up, we survey and explore power and bandwidth efficient modulation schemes in details. In the existing publications and in various communication standards, initially square quadrature amplitude modulation (SQAM) constellations (even power of 2) were considered. However, only the square constellations are not efficient for varying channel conditions and rate requirements, and hence, odd power of 2 constellations were introduced. For odd power of 2 constellations, rectangular QAM (RQAM) is commonly used. However, RQAM is not a good choice due to its lower power efficiency, and a modified cross QAM (XQAM) constellation is preferred as it provides improved power efficiency over RQAM due to its energy efficient two dimensional (2D) structure. The increasing demand for high data-rates has further encouraged the research towards more compact 2D constellations which lead to hexagonal lattice structure based constellations, referred to as hexagonal QAM (HQAM). In this work, various QAM constellations are discussed and detailed study of star QAM, XQAM, and HQAM constellations is presented. Generation, peak and average energies, peak-to-average-power ratio, symbol-error-rate, decision boundaries, bit mapping, Gray code penalty, and bit-error-rate of star QAM, XQAM, and HQAM constellations with different constellation orders are presented. Finally, a comparative study of various QAM constellations is presented which justifies the supremacy of HQAM over other QAM constellations. With this, it can be claimed that the use of the HQAM in various wireless communication systems and standards can further improve the performance targeted for beyond 5G wireless communication systems.
dc.publisherarXiv
dc.relation.urlhttps://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.14708
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to arXiv
dc.titleA Survey on Design and Performance of Higher-Order QAM Constellations
dc.typePreprint
dc.contributor.departmentCommunication Theory Lab
dc.contributor.departmentComputer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentComputer, Electrical, and Mathematical Science and Engineering (CEMSE) Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
dc.contributor.departmentElectrical Engineering Program
dc.eprint.versionPre-print
dc.contributor.institutionSenior member, IEEE.
dc.contributor.institutionDiscipline of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore-453552, India.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electronics & Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur-831014, India.
dc.contributor.institutionFellow,IEEE.
dc.identifier.arxivid2004.14708
kaust.personSingya, Praveen Kumar
kaust.personAlouini, Mohamed-Slim
refterms.dateFOA2020-05-19T09:24:13Z


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