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dc.contributor.authorMarti, Elisa
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Cecilia
dc.contributor.authorGalli, Matteo
dc.contributor.authorEchevarría, Fidel
dc.contributor.authorDuarte, Carlos M.
dc.contributor.authorCozar, A.
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-18T11:24:29Z
dc.date.available2020-05-18T11:24:29Z
dc.date.issued2020-05-11
dc.identifier.citationMarti, E., Martin, C., Galli, M., Echevarría, F., Duarte, C. M., & Cozar, A. (2020). The colours of the ocean plastics. Environmental Science & Technology. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b06400
dc.identifier.issn0013-936X
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.est.9b06400
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/662858
dc.description.abstractCharacterisation of the colour is often included in studies on plastic pollution. However, the comparability and relevance of this information is limited by methodology or observer subjectivity. Based on the analysis of thousands of floating plastic fragments from a global collection, here we propose a systematic semi-automatic method to analyse colours by using a reference palette of 120 Pantone colours. The most abundant colours were white and transparent/translucent (47 %), yellow and brown (26 %) and blue-like (9 %). The white colour increased in the smallest pieces (< 5 mm) and far from coastal sources (> 500 km). Both fragmentation and discolouration of ocean plastics may occur because of longer exposure time to sunlight in nature. In addition, yellow items peaked at around 1 cm and brown colours at around 1 mm, supporting the notion that yellowing precedes tanning in the aging process, which is paralleled by fragmentation. Apart from the effects of the weathering, our results suggest a second-order modulation of the colour distributions of marine plastic microplastics by the selective action of visual predators. The present work provides methodological tools and a wide empirical background to further the interpretation and applicability of the colour information on ocean plastics.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study is an outcome of Malaspina 2010 expedition (Consolider-Ingenio 2010, CSD2008-00077). E.M. was supported by the Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEIMAR) through a PhD Research Project Grant. We received additional support from PLASTREND (BBVA Foundation) and MIDaS (CTM2016- 77106-R,AEI/FEDER/UE) projects. We thank personnel from Malaspina 2010 expedition, MEDSea (EU contract number FP7-2010-265103), TARA Arctic Ocean, MAFIA (Migrants and Active Flux In the Atlantic Ocean), MEGAN (Mesoscale and submesoscale processes in the Strait of Gibraltar: The Trafalgar-Alborán connection), Seagrass and Mangrove Cruise through Red Sea and ETO y NST Cruise along Bay of Biscay, for the help with the sample collection.
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
dc.relation.urlhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.9b06400
dc.rightsThis document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Environmental Science & Technology, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.9b06400.
dc.titleThe colours of the ocean plastics
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Science & Technology
dc.rights.embargodate2021-05-11
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionDepartamento de Biología, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar (CEIMAR), Instituto Universitario de Investigaciones Marinas (INMAR), Universidad de Cádiz, E11510 Puerto Real, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, 53100, Siena, Italy.
kaust.personMartin, Cecilia
kaust.personDuarte, Carlos M.
dc.date.published-online2020-05-11
dc.date.published-print2020-06-02


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