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dc.contributor.authorNaji, Osamah
dc.contributor.authorAl-juboori, Raed A.
dc.contributor.authorBowtell, Les
dc.contributor.authorAlpatova, Alla
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, NorEddine
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-27T07:07:43Z
dc.date.available2019-10-27T07:07:43Z
dc.date.issued2019-09-30
dc.identifier.citationNaji, O., Al-juboori Raed A., Bowtell, L., Alpatova, A., & Ghaffour, N. (2020). Direct contact ultrasound for fouling control and flux enhancement in air-gap membrane distillation. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 61, 104816. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104816
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104816
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/659222
dc.description.abstractAir Gap Membrane distillation (AGMD) is a thermally driven separation process capable of treating challenging water types, but its low productivity is a major drawback. Membrane fouling is a common problem in many membrane treatment systems, which exacerbates AGMD’s low overall productivity. In this study, we investigated the direct application of low-power ultrasound (8–23 W), as an in-line cleaning and performance boosting technique for AGMD. Two different highly saline feedwaters, namely natural groundwater (3970 μS/cm) and RO reject stream water (12760 μS/cm) were treated using Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Theoretical calculations and experimental investigations are presented, showing that the applied ultrasonic power range only produced acoustic streaming effects that enhanced cleaning and mass transfer. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) analysis showed that ultrasound was capable of effectively removing silica and calcium scaling. Ultrasound application on a fouled membrane resulted in a 100% increase in the permeate flux. Cleaning effects accounted for around 30–50% of this increase and the remainder was attributed to mass transfer improvements. Contaminant rejection percentages were consistently high for all treatments (>99%), indicating that ultrasound did not deteriorate the membrane structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis of the membrane surface was used to confirm this observation. The images of the membrane surface demonstrated that ultrasound successfully cleaned the previously fouled membrane, with no signs of structural damage. The results of this study highlight the efficient and effective application of direct low power ultrasound for improving AGMD performance.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttps://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350417719307977
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, [[Volume], [Issue], (2019-09-30)] DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104816 . © 2019. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectMembrane distillation
dc.subjectDirect ultrasound
dc.subjectFouling control
dc.subjectCleaning
dc.subjectAGMD
dc.subjectChallenging feedwater
dc.subjectMass transfer
dc.titleDirect contact ultrasound for fouling control and flux enhancement in air-gap membrane distillation
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.identifier.journalUltrasonics Sonochemistry
dc.rights.embargodate2021-09-30
dc.eprint.versionPost-print
dc.contributor.institutionFaculty of Health, Engineering and Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba 4350, Australia
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Technology Sydney (UTS), Centre for Technology in Water and Wastewater Treatment, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Federation University Australia, University Drive, Mt Helen, VIC 3350, Australia
kaust.personAlpatova, Alla
kaust.personGhaffour, Noreddine
dc.date.published-online2019-09-30
dc.date.published-print2020-03


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