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dc.contributor.authorSanawar, Huma
dc.contributor.authorBucs, Szilárd S
dc.contributor.authorPot, Martin A
dc.contributor.authorZlopasa, Jure
dc.contributor.authorFarhat, Nadia
dc.contributor.authorWitkamp, Geert Jan
dc.contributor.authorKruithof, Joop C
dc.contributor.authorvan Loosdrecht, Mark C M
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-01T07:00:16Z
dc.date.available2019-10-01T07:00:16Z
dc.date.issued2019-09-06
dc.identifier.citationSanawar, H., Bucs, S. S., Pot, M. A., Zlopasa, J., Farhat, N. M., Witkamp, G.-J., … Vrouwenvelder, J. S. (2019). Pilot-Scale Assessment of Urea as a Chemical Cleaning Agent for Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Reverse Osmosis Membrane Elements. Membranes, 9(9), 117. doi:10.3390/membranes9090117
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/membranes9090117
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/656809
dc.description.abstractRoutine chemical cleaning with the combined use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) is carried out as a means of biofouling control in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The novelty of the research presented herein is in the application of urea, instead of NaOH, as a chemical cleaning agent to full-scale spiral-wound RO membrane elements. A comparative study was carried out at a pilot-scale facility at the Evides Industriewater DECO water treatment plant in the Netherlands. Three fouled 8-inch diameter membrane modules were harvested from the lead position of one of the full-scale RO units treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) permeate. One membrane module was not cleaned and was assessed as the control. The second membrane module was cleaned by the standard alkali/acid cleaning protocol. The third membrane module was cleaned with concentrated urea solution followed by acid rinse. The results showed that urea cleaning is as effective as the conventional chemical cleaning with regards to restoring the normalized feed channel pressure drop, and more effective in terms of (i) improving membrane permeability, and (ii) solubilizing organic foulants and the subsequent removal of the surface fouling layer. Higher biomass removal by urea cleaning was also indicated by the fact that the total organic carbon (TOC) content in the HCl rinse solution post-urea-cleaning was an order of magnitude greater than in the HCl rinse after standard cleaning. Further optimization of urea-based membrane cleaning protocols and urea recovery and/or waste treatment methods is proposed for full-scale applications.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors extend their gratitude to the plant operators at Evides Industriewater DECO plant for their assistance.
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding: This research was funded by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) under grant number BAS/1/1024-01-01, and by Evides Industriewater. The APC was funded by TU Delft.
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/2077-0375/9/9/117
dc.rightsLicensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
dc.subjectdesalination
dc.subjecturea
dc.subjectbiofouling
dc.subjectchemical cleaning
dc.subjectnanofiltration
dc.subjectmembrane autopsy
dc.titlePilot-Scale Assessment of Urea as a Chemical Cleaning Agent for Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Reverse Osmosis Membrane Elements.
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalMembranes
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionEvides Industriewater BV, Process & Technology Department, P.O. Box 4472, 3006 AL Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, The Netherlands.
dc.contributor.institutionWetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.
kaust.personSanawar, Huma
kaust.personBucs, Szilárd S
kaust.personFarhat, Nadia M
kaust.personWitkamp, Geert Jan
kaust.personVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
kaust.grant.numberBAS/1/1024-01-01
refterms.dateFOA2019-10-01T07:01:06Z


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Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).