Recent Submissions

  • Emergence of Room Temperature Magnetotransport Anomaly in Epitaxial Pt/γ′-Fe4N/MgO Heterostructures toward Noncollinear Spintronics

    Shi, Xiaohui; Jiang, Jiawei; Wang, Yadong; Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Mi, Wenbo; Zhang, Xixiang (ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2021-05-27) [Article]
    Noncollinear spin textures have attracted much attention due to their novel physical behaviors in heavy/ferromagnetic metal (HM/FM) systems. The transport anomaly, appearing as contrast humps in Hall resistivity curves, is the mark of noncollinear spin textures. Here, the epitaxial Pt/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N bilayers with noncollinear spin textures were obtained by facing target sputtering. Large micromagnetic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction coefficient <i>D</i> of 2.90 mJ/m<sup>2</sup> appears in Pt/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N/MgO systems, which is larger than 2.05 mJ/m<sup>2</sup> of Pt/Co/MgO systems with skyrmionic states. Moreover, at 300 K, magnetic bubble-like domains appear in Pt/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N bilayers that just possess a 3 nm thick ferromagnetic layer instead of [HM/FM]<i><sub>n</sub></i> or [HM<sub>1</sub>/FM/HM<sub>2</sub>]<i><sub>n</sub></i> multilayers. Additionally, a room-temperature transport anomaly appears in Pt/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N/MgO systems. The contrast humps of Pt(3 nm)/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N(<i>t</i><sub>Fe<sub>4</sub>N</sub> ≤ 4 nm)/MgO heterostructures are not sharp due to the nonuniform distributions of the magnetic bubble-like domains with various sizes and irregular shapes, as observed by the magnetic force microscopy. The discovery of epitaxial Pt/γ'-Fe<sub>4</sub>N bilayers with noncollinear spin states is more crucial than that of polycrystalline or amorphous HM/FM systems for reducing ohmic heating, which provides a candidate for noncollinear spintronic applications.
  • Bending strain tailored exchange bias in epitaxial NiMn/γ′-Fe4N bilayers

    Shi, Xiaohui; Mi, Wenbo; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2020-09-28) [Article]
    The strain tunable exchange bias has attracted much attention due to its practical applications in flexible and wearable spintronic devices. Here, the flexible epitaxial NiMn/c0-Fe4N bilayers are deposited by facing-target reactive sputtering. The maximum strain-induced change ratios of exchange bias field HEB and coercivity HC (jDHEB/HEBj and jDHC/HCj) are 51% and 22%, respectively. A large strain-induced jDHEB/HEBj appears in a thicker ferromagnetic layer, but a large jDHC/HCj) appears in a thinner ferromagnetic layer. At a compressive strain, the antiferromagnetic anisotropy of the tetragonal NiMn layer increases, resulting in an increased HC of NiMn/c0-Fe4N bilayers. The bending-strain induced changes of anisotropy magnetoresistance and planar Hall resistance are also observed at low magnetic fields. The bending-strain tailored magnetic properties can be ascribed to the distributions of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic anisotropies.
  • Lattice deformation in epitaxial Fe3O4 films on MgO substrate studied by polarized Raman spectroscopy∗

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Mi, Wenbo; Zhang, Xixiang (Chinese Physics B, IOP Publishing, 2020-08-02) [Article]
    The lattice structures of epitaxial Fe3O4 films deposited on MgO were studied systematically using polarized Raman spectroscopy as a function of film thickness, where interesting phenomena were observed. Firstly, the spectral conflict to the Raman selection rules (RSRs) was observed under cross sectional configuration, which can be attributed to the tetragonal deformation in the growth direction due to the lattice mismatch between Fe3O4 and MgO. Secondly, the blue-shift and broadening of Raman peaks evidenced the decrease of the tensile strain in Fe3O4 film with decreased thickness. Thirdly, distinct from the other Raman modes, the lowest T 2g mode exhibited asymmetric lineshape, which can be interpreted using the spatial correlation model. The increased correlation length introduced in the model can well explain the enhanced peak asymmetry feature with decreasing thickness. These results provide useful information for understanding the lattice structure of epitaxial Fe3O4 film.
  • The impact of nanoscale compositional variation on the properties of amorphous alloys.

    Gemma, Ryota; Baben, Moritz To; Pundt, Astrid; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin (Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, 2020-07-10) [Article]
    The atomic distribution in amorphous FeZr alloys is found to be close to random, nevertheless, the composition can not be viewed as being homogenous at the nm-scale. The spatial variation of the local composition is identified as the root of the unusual magnetic properties in amorphous [Formula: see text] alloys. The findings are discussed and generalised with respect to the physical properties of amorphous and crystalline materials.
  • Topological electronic state and anisotropic Fermi surface in half-Heusler GdPtBi

    Zhang, Junli; Chen, Jie; Li, Peng; Zhang, Chenhui; Hou, Zhipeng; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Wenhong; Zhang, Xixiang (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, IOP Publishing, 2020-06-05) [Article]
    Half-Heusler alloys possess unique and desirable physical properties due to their thermoelectricity, magnetism, superconductivity, and weak antilocalization effects. These properties have become of particular interest since the recent discovery of topological Weyl semimetal state for which the electronic bands are dispersed linearly around one pair of Weyl nodes, with opposite chirality (i.e., chiral anomaly). Here, we report the transport signatures of topological electronic state in a half-Heusler GdPtBi single crystal. We show that the non-trivial  Berry phase, negative magnetoresistance and giant planner Hall effect arise from the chiral anomaly and that the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation frequency in GdPtBi is angle-dependent with an anisotropic Fermi surface (FS). All transport signatures not only demonstrate the topological electronic state in half-Heusler GdPtBi crystals, but also describe the shape of the anisotropy FS.
  • Effect of surface roughness on the anomalous Hall effect in Fe thin films

    Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Dongxing; Wen, Yan; Zhao, Yuelei; Mi, Wenbo; Manchon, Aurelien; Boulle, Olivier; Zhang, Xixiang (Physical Review B, American Physical Society (APS), 2020-04-13) [Article]
    Surface roughness plays an important role on the magnetotransport properties of thin films, especially in ultrathin films. In this work, we prepared Fe thin films with various surface roughness by using different seed layers and studied the electrical transport and anomalous Hall effect. By tuning surface roughness scattering, the longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) measured at 5 K increases by one order of magnitude and the corresponding anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) increases by three times with increasing roughness. The intrinsic, skew-scattering, and side-jump contributions to ρAHE were separated from our data. The anomalous Hall angle depends on the surface roughness, which may be of importance to the material engineering for achieving large spin Hall angle.
  • Improved ambient stability of thermally annealed zinc nitride thin films

    Trapalis, A.; Farrer, I.; Kennedy, K.; Kean, A.; Sharman, J.; Heffernan, J. (AIP Advances, AIP Publishing, 2020-03-13) [Article]
    Zinc nitride films are known to readily oxidize in an ambient atmosphere, forming a ZnO/Zn(OH)2 medium. We report that post-growth thermal annealing significantly improves the stability of zinc nitride with a three-order magnitude increase in degradation time from a few days in un-annealed films to several years after annealing. A degradation study was performed on samples annealed under a flow of nitrogen at 200–400 °C, which showed that the stability of the films depends strongly on the annealing temperature. We propose a mechanism for this improvement, which involves a stabilization of the native oxide layer that forms on the surface of zinc nitride films after exposure to ambient conditions. The result holds significant promise for the use of zinc nitride in devices where operational stability is a critical factor in applications.
  • Ultra miniaturized InterDigitated electrodes platform for sensing applications

    Wang, Z.; Syed, Ali Raza; Bhattacharya, S.; Chen, X.; Buttner, Ulrich; Iordache, Gheorghe; Salama, Khaled N.; Ganetsos, Th; Valamontes, E.; Georgas, A.; Raptis, Ioannis; Oikonomou, P.; Botsialas, A.; Sanopoulou, M. (Microelectronic Engineering, Elsevier BV, 2020-02-08) [Article]
    InterDigitated Electrodes (IDEs) is a generic platform for a wide range of diverse applications with their implementation in sensing modules being a major one. We propose the use of IDCs with deep sub-micron critical dimension; equally spaced electrodes of 200 nm width for enhanced sensing performance and also the method of fabrication thereof. The transducer configuration was studied theoretically with a finite element method simulation by using COMSOL Multiphysics. The miniaturization of the IDEs up to 200 nm critical dimension with an adequate sensing area for the deposition of the polymeric materials is considered beneficial in terms of sensitivity gain. The IDCs were designed to deliver capacitance values of few pF in order to be compatible with already developed miniaturized low-power readout electronics. The transducers fabrication is performed with conventional microelectronic/micromachining processing and then coated with several semi-selective polymeric films. Besides the fabrication of multiple sensor arrays (chips) on the same silicon wafer, the miniaturization offers the integration with the readout electronics on the same chip. The evaluation of the sensing performance of the semi-selective polymer coated sensors is performed upon exposure to vapours of pure and binary mixtures of VOCs and humidity in various concentrations. The sensors demonstrate high sensitivity to the examined analytes as a result of the miniaturization, while their semi-selectivity is a key for applications in complex vapour environment discrimination.
  • Direct imaging of an inhomogeneous electric current distribution using the trajectory of magnetic half-skyrmions

    Zhang, Senfu; Zhang, Xichao; Zhang, Junwei; Ganguly, Arnab; Xia, Jing; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Guoqiang; Hou, Zhipeng; Wang, Wenhong; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Gang; Manchon, Aurelien; Kosel, Jürgen; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xixiang (Science Advances, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2020-02-07) [Article]
    The direct imaging of current density vector distributions in thin films has remained a daring challenge. Here, we report that an inhomogeneous current distribution can be mapped directly by the trajectories of magnetic half-skyrmions driven by an electrical current in Pt/Co/Ta trilayer, using polar magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. The half-skyrmion carries a topological charge of 0.5 due to the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which leads to the half-skyrmion Hall effect. The Hall angle of half-skyrmions is independent of current density and can be reduced to as small as 4° by tuning the thickness of the Co layer. The Hall angle is so small that the elongation path of half-skyrmion approximately delineates the invisible current flow as demonstrated in both a continuous film and a curved track. Our work provides a practical technique to directly map inhomogeneous current distribution even in complex geometries for both fundamental research and industrial applications.
  • Growth of N-GA doped ZnO nanowires interconnected with disks over P-SI substrate and their heterojunction diode application

    Al-Hadeethi, Yas; Badran, Rashad I.; Umar, Ahmad; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Alharbi, Abdulrazak M. (Materials Express, American Scientific Publishers, 2020-01-07) [Article]
    In this paper, the heterojunction diode based on n-Ga doped ZnO nanowires interconnected with disks/p-Si assembly was fabricated and their low-temperature electrical properties were examined. The Ga-doped ZnO nanowires interconnected with disks were grown over p-Si substrate and studied by numerous techniques to understand the structural, compositional and morphological characteristics. Electrical properties, at lowtemperatures ranging from 77 K–295 K, were examined for the fabricated heterojunction diode assembly both in reverse and forward biased conditions which exhibited an excellent stability over all the temperature range. The detailed electrical characterizations revealed that the current decreases gradually from 1.9 A, to 0.87 A to 0.84 A when temperature increases from 77 K, 100 K to 150 K and then increases gradually from 1.86 A– 3.36 A and to 9.95 A when temperature increases from 200 K–250 K and to 295 K, respectively. Both the highest rectifying ratio at 100 K and the lowest one at 295 K occur in the voltage range of 2–5 V.
  • Understanding the Origin of Selective Reduction of CO2 to CO on Single-Atom Nickel Catalyst.

    He, Shi; Ji, Dong; Zhang, Junwei; Novello, Peter; Li, Xueqian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Liu, Jie (The journal of physical chemistry. B, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019-12-27) [Article]
    Electrochemical reduction of CO2 to CO offers a promising strategy for regulating the global carbon cycle and providing feedstock for the chemical industry. Understanding the origin that determines the faradaic efficiency (FE) of reduction of CO2 to CO is critical for developing a highly efficient electrocatalyst. Here, by constructing a single-atom Ni catalyst on nitrogen-doped winged carbon nanofiber (NiSA-NWC), we find that the single-atom Ni catalyst possesses the maximum CO FE of over 95% at -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl, which is about 30% higher than the standard Ni nanoparticles on the same support. The Tafel analysis reveals that the single-atom Ni catalyst has a preferred reduction of CO2 to CO and a slower rate for the hydrogen evolution reaction. We propose that the domination of singular Ni1+ electronic states and limited hydrogen atom adsorption sites on the single-atom Ni catalyst lead to the observed high FE for CO2 reduction to CO.
  • Hybrid organic–metal oxide multilayer channel transistors with high operational stability

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Li, Wen; Faber, Hendrik; Seitkhan, Akmaral; Hastas, Nikolaos A.; Khim, Dongyoon; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang; Pliatsikas, Nikolaos; Tsetseris, Leonidas; Patsalas, Panos A.; Bradley, Donal; Huang, Wei; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. (Nature Electronics, Springer Nature, 2019-12-16) [Article]
    Metal oxide thin-film transistors are increasingly used in the driving backplanes of organic light-emitting diode displays. Commercial devices currently rely on metal oxides processed via physical vapour deposition methods, but the use of solution-based processes could provide a simpler, higher-throughput approach that would be more cost effective. However, creating oxide transistors with high carrier mobility and bias-stable operation using such processes has proved challenging. Here we show that transistors with high electron mobility (50 cm2 V−1 s−1) and operational stability can be fabricated from solution-processed multilayer channels composed of ultrathin layers of indium oxide, zinc oxide nanoparticles, ozone-treated polystyrene and compact zinc oxide. Insertion of the ozone-treated polystyrene interlayer passivates electron traps in the channel and reduces bias-induced instability during continuous transistor operation over a period of 24 h and under a high electric-field flux density (2.1 × 10−6 C cm−2). Furthermore, incorporation of the pre-synthesized aluminium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles enables controlled n-type doping of the hybrid channels, providing additional control over the operating characteristics of the transistors.
  • Current-Induced Helicity Reversal of a Single Skyrmionic Bubble Chain in a Nanostructured Frustrated Magnet.

    Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xichao; Xu, Guizhou; Xia, Jing; Ding, Bei; Li, Hang; Zhang, Senfu; Batra, Nitin M; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng; Ezawa, Motohiko; Liu, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong (Advanced materials, Wiley, 2019-11-20) [Article]
    Helicity indicates the in-plane magnetic-moment swirling direction of a skyrmionic configuration. The ability to reverse the helicity of a skyrmionic bubble via purely electrical means has been predicted in frustrated magnetic systems; however, it has been challenging to observe this experimentally. The current-driven helicity reversal of the skyrmionic bubble in a nanostructured frustrated Fe3 Sn2 magnet is experimentally demonstrated. The critical current density required to trigger the helicity reversal is 109 -1010 A m-2 , with a corresponding pulse-width varying from 1 µs to 100 ns. Computational simulations reveal that both the pinning effect and dipole-dipole interaction play a crucial role in the helicity reversal process.
  • Competition between Electronic and Magnonic Spin Currents in Metallic Antiferromagnets

    Wen, Yan; Zhuo, Fengjun; Zhao, Yuelei; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Manchon, Aurelien; Zhang, Xixiang (Physical Review Applied, American Physical Society (APS), 2019-11-13) [Article]
    We investigate the spin-orbit torque in a Ta/Ir−Mn/Cu/Ni−Fe multilayer heterostructure and relate it to spin current transmission through the Ir−Mn layer. We identify several spin current transport regimes as a function of the temperature and the thickness of the Ir−Mn layer. To interpret this experiment, we develope a drift-diffusion model accounting for both electron and magnon transport in the heterostructures. This model allows us to discriminate between the contributions of electrons and magnons to the total spin current in Ir−Mn. We find that the electron-magnon spin convertance is one order of magnitude larger than the interfacial electronic spin conductance, while the magnon diffusion length is about ten times longer than the electronic spin relaxation length. This study demonstrates that magnonic spin transport dominates over electronic spin transport even in disorder metallic antiferromagnets.
  • Weak antilocalization effect and high-pressure transport properties of ScPdBi single crystal

    Zhang, Junli; Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chenhui; Chen, Jie; Li, Peng; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Wenhong; Zhang, Xixiang (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2019-10-25) [Article]
    Half-Heusler compounds have attracted considerable attention due to their fantastic physical properties that include topological effects,Weyl fermions, unusual magnetism, and superconductivity. Herein, the transport properties of half-Heusler ScPdBi single crystals are studiedacross a wide temperature range and different magnetic fields. From the field-dependent magnetoresistance, we observe a clear weak antiloc-alization (WAL) effect below 200 K in the low magnetic-field region. The angle-dependent magnetoconductance and the ultralarge prefactoraextracted from the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka equation reveal that the WAL effect is a 3D bulk effect caused by strong spin–orbit coupling.We further studied the magnetotransport properties of the single crystal upon application of hydrostatic pressure and found that the energygap of ScPdBi increases gradually as the hydrostatic pressure increases. Density functional theory calculations confirm that applying hydro-static pressure decreases the lattice parameters and, consequently, enlarges the bandgap
  • Negative differential resistance and magnetotransport in Fe3O4/SiO2/Si heterostructures

    Liu, Xiang; Mi, Wenbo; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Xixiang (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2019-06-17) [Article]
    The electronic transport and magnetotransport properties of Fe3O4/SiO2/Si heterostructures were investigated with a current source. Negative differential resistance is observed in Fe3O4/SiO2/p-Si heterostructures. The measurement circuit with four electrodes that I+ (I−) and V+ (V−) came into contact with the Fe3O4 (Si) layer introduces an in-plane transport into the heterostructures. By decreasing the temperature, the in-plane conductive channel switches from Fe3O4 to p-Si. However, the in-plane current is still carried by Fe3O4 in Fe3O4/SiO2/n-Si heterostructures. The formation of an accumulation layer in p-Si facilitates conductive channel switching (CCS), while the depletion layer in n-Si hampers the CCS. At 150 K, a magnetic-field-independent magnetoresistance (MR) in Fe3O4/SiO2/p-Si heterostructures manifests the conductive channel in the space charge region of p-Si. A positive MR generated from the increased electronic scattering in a trapezoidal space charge region reshaped by the magnetic field has been detected.
  • Giant nonvolatile manipulation of magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions by electric fields via magnetoelectric coupling

    Chen, Aitian; Wen, Yan; Fang, Bin; Zhao, Yuelei; Zhang, Qiang; Chang, Yuansi; Li, Peisen; Wu, Hao; Huang, Haoliang; Lu, Yalin; Zeng, Zhongming; Cai, Jianwang; Han, Xiufeng; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhao, Yonggang (Nature Communications, Springer Nature, 2019-01-16) [Article]
    Electrically switchable magnetization is considered a milestone in the development of ultralow power spintronic devices, and it has been a long sought-after goal for electric-field control of magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with ultralow power consumption. Here, through integrating spintronics and multiferroics, we investigate MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions on ferroelectric substrate with a high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of 235%. A giant, reversible and nonvolatile electric-field manipulation of magnetoresistance to about 55% is realized at room temperature without the assistance of a magnetic field. Through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling, the electric field modifies the magnetic anisotropy of the free layer leading to its magnetization rotation so that the relative magnetization configuration of the magnetic tunnel junction can be efficiently modulated. Our findings offer significant fundamental insight into information storage using electric writing and magnetic reading and represent a crucial step towards low-power spintronic devices.
  • Manipulating the Topology of Nanoscale Skyrmion Bubbles by Spatially Geometric Confinement

    Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Guizhou; Zhang, Senfu; GONG, CHEN; Ding, Bei; Li, Hang; Xu, Feng; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Enke; Wu, Guangheng; Zhang, Xixiang; Wang, Wenhong (ACS Nano, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2019-01-03) [Article]
  • Vertically Aligned Graphene-based Thermal Interface Material with High Thermal Conductivity

    Wang, Nan; Chen, Shujing; Nkansah, Amos; Wang, Qianlong; Wang, Xitao; Chen, Miaoxiang; Ye, Lilei; Liu, Johan (2018 24rd International Workshop on Thermal Investigations of ICs and Systems (THERMINIC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018-12-31) [Conference Paper]
    High density packaging in combination with increased transistor integration inevitably leads to challenging power densities in terms of thermal management. Here, a novel highly thermal conductive and lightweight graphene based thermal interface materials (GT) was developed for thermal management in power devices. Composed by vertically graphene structures, GTs provide a continuous high thermal conductivity phase along the path of thermal transport, which lead to outstanding thermal properties. The highest through-plane thermal conductivity GTs reaches to 1000 W/mK, which is orders of magnitude higher than conventional TIMs, and even outperforms the pure indium by over ten times. In addition, a thin layer of indium metal that coated on the surface of GTs can easily form alloys with many other metals at a relatively low reflow temperature. Therefore, GTs, as an excellent TIM, can provide complete physical contact between two surfaces with minimized the contact resistance. The measured total thermal resistance and effective thermal conductivity by using 300 m thick GTs as TIM between two copper blocks reaches to ~ 3.7 Kmm2 /W and ~ 90 W/mK, respectively. Such values are significantly higher than the randomly dispersed composites presented above, and show even better thermal performance than pure indium bonding. In addition, GTs has more advantages than pure indium bonding, including low weight (density < 2 g/cm3), low complexity during assembly and maintainability. The resulting GTs thus opens new opportunities for addressing large heat dissipation issues in form-factor driven electronics and other high power driven systems.
  • Single crystal hybrid perovskite field-effect transistors

    Yu, Weili; Li, Feng; Yu, Liyang; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Zou, Yuting; Corzo Diaz, Daniel Alejandro; Basu, Aniruddha; Ma, Chun; Dey, Sukumar; Tietze, Max Lutz; Buttner, Ulrich; Wang, Xianbin; Wang, Zhihong; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Guo, Chunlei; Wu, Tao; Amassian, Aram (Nature Communications, Springer Nature, 2018-12-17) [Article]
    The fields of photovoltaics, photodetection and light emission have seen tremendous activity in recent years with the advent of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites. Yet, there have been far fewer reports of perovskite-based field-effect transistors. The lateral and interfacial transport requirements of transistors make them particularly vulnerable to surface contamination and defects rife in polycrystalline films and bulk single crystals. Here, we demonstrate a spatially-confined inverse temperature crystallization strategy which synthesizes micrometre-thin single crystals of methylammonium lead halide perovskites MAPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) with sub-nanometer surface roughness and very low surface contamination. These benefit the integration of MAPbX3 crystals into ambipolar transistors and yield record, room-temperature field-effect mobility up to 4.7 and 1.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 in p and n channel devices respectively, with 104 to 105 on-off ratio and low turn-on voltages. This work paves the way for integrating hybrid perovskite crystals into printed, flexible and transparent electronics.

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