Oxygen supersaturation protects coastal marine fauna from ocean warming
Duarte, Carlos M.
Anton Gamazo, Andrea
KAUST DepartmentKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Red Sea Research Center (RSRC), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Marine Science Program
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
KAUST Grant NumberCRG-7-3739
Online Publication Date2019-09-04
Print Publication Date2019-09
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/656714
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AbstractOcean warming affects the life history and fitness of marine organisms by, among others, increasing animal metabolism and reducing oxygen availability. In coastal habitats, animals live in close association with photosynthetic organisms whose oxygen supply supports metabolic demands and may compensate for acute warming. Using a unique high-frequency monitoring dataset, we show that oxygen supersaturation resulting from photosynthesis closely parallels sea temperature rise during diel cycles in Red Sea coastal habitats. We experimentally demonstrate that oxygen supersaturation extends the survival to more extreme temperatures of six species from four phyla. We clarify the mechanistic basis of the extended thermal tolerance by showing that hyperoxia fulfills the increased metabolic demand at high temperatures. By modeling 1 year of water temperatures and oxygen concentrations, we predict that oxygen supersaturation from photosynthetic activity invariably fuels peak animal metabolic demand, representing an underestimated factor of resistance and resilience to ocean warming in ectotherms.
SponsorsWe thank S. Umer for the invaluable support during laboratory work. We are grateful to A. Bodega Martinez for the species illustrations in Fig. 2. We thank M. Hay and two anonymous reviewers whose suggestions helped improve and clarify the early version of the manuscript.
Funding: This research was funded by KAUST through baseline funding to C.M.D. and D.D.; the Competitive Center Funding 2017–2018, “Role of oxygen availability in shaping the bacterial microbiome of mangrove animal ectotherm species”; and the Competitive Research Grant (CRG-7-3739) to D.D., “The role of the bacterial symbiome at the gill-water (air) interface in the evolution towards terrestrialization (Microlanding),” 1 April 2019 to 31 March 2022.