Temporal and Spatial Variations in Temperature and Salinity in the Mixed Layer from Changes in Latent Heat of Evaporation in the Red Sea
A time series analysis of the latent heat flux of evaporation, the temperature and the salinity was carried out for the Mixed Layer at two locations in the Red Sea. The month of March was analyzed for the northern region of Dubaand the more central location of KAUST. A longer time series spanning from January to September 2018 was analyzed for KAUST. Glider data of the temperature and the salinity in the Mixed Layer was combined with satellite measurements of heat fluxes for the analysis. The results show there is a high variability in the temperature and salinity within the Mixed Layer during the month of March. Temperature was anticorrelatedwith evaporation while salinity was positively correlated. For the whole year analysis, the sea response had a lag 6 days for temperature and 9 days for salinity at KAUST. The month of March showed a weaker relationship with a lag of 3 days for both temperature and salinity at KAUST. No significant relationship could be stablished at Duba. In general, it can be concluded that around the month of March when the evaporation decreases the advection term from the heat budget becomes more relevant and it obscures the correlation of Qe with T and S.
Y. Al-Naffouri, Tareq; Sarieddeen, Hadi; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim(2019-01-13)[Poster]
Signal Processing Techniques for Terahertz UM-MIMO Systems
•THz communications promise Terabit/second data rates
•Recent advancements in electronic, photonic, and plasmonic technologies are closing the gap in THz transceiver design
•THz signal generation, modulation, and radiation methods are converging
•Channel model, noise, and hardware-impairment notions are emerging
•This paves the way to well-grounded research directions on THz-specific signal processing techniques for wireless communications
A KAUST seaglider was attacked by a shark at approximately 09:10 Arabian Standard Time at a depth of 56.39m off the coast of Duba, Saudi Arabia. Seagliders are long-range autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that can profile the ocean for many months at a time at a fraction of the cost of traditional methods. Shark attacks are a threat to the integrity of the data recorded by AUVs. This study quantifies the damage inflicted on the seaglider, as well as discussing the strike mechanics and potential attack motivation.
Bite profiles were used to compare the inflicted damage on the Seaglider to the known pelagic species inhabiting the Red Sea. This included a tooth fragment and bite location on the Seaglider.
Seaglider 213 was deployed from 5th October 2015 until an emergency recovery on the 14th November 2015, 70km offshore of Duba. During this time, communications with the glider had been challenging, where buoyancy and direction of the Seaglider were near impossible (blue spirals). The Seaglider had been struck twice. This created an ingress of water, severed oxygen sensor and removed a wing of the Seaglider (pink circle) causing difficulties in control. A second glider was struck during the summer of 2018.
Heavy fishing in the Red Sea has reduced prey items. Pelagic sharks tend to display territorial behavior. Sharks are curious and test with their mouths; the color, noise, and biofouling could attract attention.
The only records of shark attacks on AUVs have been from white sharks, which are not found in the Red Sea. Potential species include the Oceanic Whitetip and the Shortfin Mako.
Future studies should focus on Artificial Intelligence software that can be developed to learn the normal patterns of vertical velocity, pitch, and roll of seagliders. Sharp and jagged movements are abnormal and could be interpreted as a shark strike to alert the Seaglider pilot in order to abort the mission.
To identify the potential species of the attacks, pelagic baited remote underwater video surveys (BRUVS) should be conducted at the site of attack after a mission has been aborted due to a shark strike.
Ilton De Oliveira Filho, Jose; Ombao, Hernando(2019-01-13)[Poster]
Wind Resource Assessment and Characterization of
Arabian Peninsula with Electrical Generation
Estimation for Saudi Arabia
SAUDI Arabia is a fast-growing country, with a stunning increased of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). To sustain this fast-growing rates, Saudi Arabia has continuously expanded its energy power plants. KSA has
great potential for Wind Farms, but dust storms can be a major problem as it can increase the maintenance costs drastically.
It was used two datasets to this project, the first dataset is from 89 weather stations across Saudi Arabia provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the Integrated
Surface Data (ISD) program. The second is from the weather forecast model produced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP).
We also utilized the data presented in the work from 1, 2, 3 about the dust storm over middle East. From their work, we analyzed the Shamal wind current that affects Saudi Arabia with sessional dust storms and also the sources of dust in the Arabian Peninsula.
The wind turbine generate electricity by transforming the kinectenergy provided by the wind on its blades. The Eolic energy can be observed as the theoretic energy potential of the site, and the power density of the wind can be express as:
Where W(vb) is the estimated probability distribution made by Weibull distribution:
As the data are acquired at 10m above ground level and the turbines are in different altitudes we used the exponential law for wind to extrapolate the airflow speed〖v〗_h.
The annual energy production can be calculated by:
The two figures below presents the overall mean direction (left) and wind speed for the Arabian peninsula with spatial resolution of 50km (right).
By analyzing the regions with great wind speed average (>4.133m/s) at 10m hub-height above ground level (AGL), proximity to load centers, distance from dust storm path and long-term (>10 years) data available we ended up with two regions, Wejhand Prince Salman Bin Abdulaziz(PSBA) airport regions. The figure on the left shows the wind rose map for Wejh(region 1) and on the right for PSBA (region 2).
Region2 presents 52.3% more power generation than Region 1 at a hub height of 112 meters. The power that can be generated by this region using only one turbine (16320 MW/a) is capable to power 3547 houses (using for this calculation the same power consumption of a normal house in UK) or 1395 houses (using for this calculation the same power consumption of a normal house in US). As a wind power farm has usually 50turbines, a wind farm installed in Region 2 could power 69750 residences using US standards of consumption. Thus, both regions combined, with a 50 turbine wind farm in each, could power 115540 houses (US standards of consumption).
In thiswork we conducted the analyses of the wind pattern over Saudi Arabia with additional work on its surroundings, the Arabian Peninsula. By crossing results with previous works, we have observed that the North East and Central East of the country, despite showing good wind
patternsfor this application, as it was presented on works 4-5, are not
suitableregions to build wind farms, due to the incidence of sand storms.
The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked recessive disease that caused by the genetic defect in WAS protein (WASP). The classical syndrome is characterized by thrombocytopenia, immunodeficiency, atopy, autoimmunity, and malignancy, leading to premature death in severe patients. Studies have shown that 13% to 22% of patients develop cancer with the only average onset of 9.5 years; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the early onset and high morbidity of cancer in WAS is still an unsolved issue. As the founding member of actin nucleation-promoting factors, WASP plays a critical role in mediating actin polymerization and remodeling the cytoskeleton. Nevertheless, this function fails to explain malignancy development. Here, by using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from WAS patient, we found that WAS mutant cells have an abnormal cell cycle. The cell cycle-related genes/pathways are significantly deregulated. We show that WAS deficiency leads to of splicing regulation and epigenetic regulation involved in cell cycle. We confirmed our findings in 4 independent patients with different mutations using macrophages, T, B, and dendritic cells. Interestingly, WASP’s multifaceted function in the nucleus results in synergistic disruption of cell cycle regulation when it is mutated. Taken together, our finding identified a new function of WASP in the cell cycle, which offers a potential target for predicting early cancer in WAS patient as well as a new therapy.
•Due to its close proximity to the equator and negligible cloud cover, the Red Sea receives one of the highest incident UV radiations globally (Acker et al., 2008)
•The Red Sea is one of the most ultra-oligotrophic seas in the world with very little biomass (< 0.8 mg Chl m–3). During summer, an intense and stable water stratification occurs, with the consequence that surface layers become further exhausted in the already scarce nutrients
•The lack of fluvial inputs and minimal amounts of CDOM due to low biomass mean the Red Sea could have one of the highest UV transparencies amongst marine water bodies (Helbling et al., 2003)
•Since UV attenuation is strongly determined by the concentration of chlorophyll and CDOM, which vary spatially and temporally in the Red Sea, it is likely that attenuation changes accordingly
•However, existing bio-optical Red Sea studies have predominantly been carried out in the far north and the Gulf of Aqaba in particular (Dishon et al., 2012).
The goal of this study was to establish baseline UV attenuation data for Red Sea coastal and pelagic sites across different seasons and along a broad latitudinal range. A further aim was to determine the contribution of Chl-a and CDOM towards UV attenuation in the Red Sea.
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