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dc.contributor.authorUjihara, R.
dc.contributor.authorFridjonsson, E.O.
dc.contributor.authorBristow, N.W.
dc.contributor.authorVogt, S.J.
dc.contributor.authorBucs,Szilard
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.
dc.contributor.authorJohns, M.L.
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-21T12:54:26Z
dc.date.available2019-05-21T12:54:26Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.citationUjihara R, Fridjonsson EO, Bristow NW, Vogt SJ, Bucs SS, et al. (2018) Earth’s field MRI for the non-invasive detection of fouling in spiral-wound membrane modules in pressure vessels during operation. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT 135: 16–24. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2018.23156.
dc.identifier.doi10.5004/dwt.2018.23156
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/652943
dc.description.abstractFouling of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) membrane systems is a pervasive problem. Here we demonstrate that a mobile, low cost magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus operating at the earth’s magnetic field (low magnetic field, LF) can non-invasively (i) image the inside of a SWRO membrane system with glass fiber outside casing in a pressure vessel during cross flow operation and can (ii) detect the location of foulant, in this study sodium alginate. LF-MRI images of the module were successfully acquired in less than eight minutes using a spin-echo protocol, the internal structure of the modules was clearly evident and images compared well with high resolution MRIs obtained using a large-sized, costly high magnetic field superconducting MRI system. By parameter optimisation (specifically the echo time employed) it was possible to differentiate flowing and stagnant fluid in the clean and fouled membrane systems, and to determine the presence of alginate foulant on the feed-side of the fouled SWRO membrane system. This study motivates further investigation of the sensitivity of LF-MRI and the development of bespoke low cost LF-MRI hardware for the monitoring of industrial SWRO membrane installations.
dc.description.sponsorshipR. Ujihara acknowledges scholarship funding from the Forrest Research Foundation. The authors acknowledge the facilities and scientific and technical assistance of the National Imaging Facility, a National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) capability, at the Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, and especially the assistance of Dr. Kirk Feindel.
dc.publisherDesalination Publications
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.deswater.com/DWT_articles/vol_135_papers/135_2018_16.pdf
dc.subjectFouling
dc.subjectMRI
dc.subjectNanofiltration
dc.subjectSpiral wound reverse osmosis
dc.subjectSWRO
dc.titleEarth’s field MRI for the non-invasive detection of fouling in spiral-wound membrane modules in pressure vessels during operation
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.identifier.journalDESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, 6009, , Australia
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, Delft, 2629 HZ, , Netherlands
kaust.personBucs, Szilard
kaust.personVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.


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