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dc.contributor.authorKumar, Prashanth Suresh
dc.contributor.authorKorving, Leon
dc.contributor.authorvan Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.
dc.contributor.authorWitkamp, Geert Jan
dc.date.accessioned2019-05-13T11:39:02Z
dc.date.available2019-05-13T11:39:02Z
dc.date.issued2019-04-06
dc.identifier.citationKumar PS, Korving L, van Loosdrecht MCM, Witkamp G-J (2019) Adsorption as a technology to achieve ultra-low concentrations of phosphate: Research gaps and economic analysis. Water Research X 4: 100029. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wroa.2019.100029.
dc.identifier.issn2589-9147
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.wroa.2019.100029
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/652865
dc.description.abstractEutrophication and the resulting formation of harmful algal blooms (HAB) causes huge economic and environmental damages. Phosphorus (P) from sewage effluent and agricultural run-off has been identified as a major cause for eutrophication. Phosphorous concentrations greater than 100 ¼g P/L are usually considered high enough to cause eutrophication. The strictest regulations however aim to restrict the concentration below 10 ¼g P/L. Orthophosphate (or phosphate) is the bioavailable form of phosphorus. Adsorption is often suggested as technology to reduce phosphate to concentrations less than 100 and even 10 ¼g P/L with the advantages of a low-footprint, minimal waste generation and the option to recover the phosphate. Although many studies report on phosphate adsorption, there is insufficient information regarding parameters that are necessary to evaluate its application on a large scale. This review discusses the main parameters that affect the economics of phosphate adsorption and highlights the research gaps. A scenario and sensitivity analysis shows the importance of adsorbent regeneration and reuse. The cost of phosphate adsorption using reusable porous metal oxide is in the range of $\$$ 100 to 200/Kg P for reducing the phosphate to ultra-low concentrations. Future research needs to focus on adsorption capacity at low phosphate concentrations, regeneration and reuse of both the adsorbent and the regeneration liquid.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was performed in the TTIW-cooperation framework of Wetsus,European Centre Of Excellence For Sustainable Water Technology(www.wetsus.nl). Wetsus is funded by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the European Union Regional Development Fund, the Province of Fryslân, the City of Leeuwarden and the EZ/Kompas program of the ‘Samenwerkingsverband Noord-Nederland’. The authors would like to thank the participants of the research theme “Phosphate Recovery” for their financial support and helpful discussions.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589914719300660
dc.rightsThis is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectAdsorption
dc.subjectEconomic analysis
dc.subjectEutrophication
dc.subjectPhosphate
dc.subjectRegeneration
dc.subjectUltra-low concentration
dc.titleAdsorption as a technology to achieve ultra-low concentrations of phosphate: Research gaps and economic analysis
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalWater Research X
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Building 58, Van der Maasweg 9, Delft, HZ, 2629, , Netherlands
dc.contributor.institutionWetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, Leeuwarden, MA, 8911, , Netherlands
kaust.personWitkamp, Geert Jan
refterms.dateFOA2019-05-13T12:44:34Z
dc.date.published-online2019-04-06
dc.date.published-print2019-08


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This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).