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dc.contributor.authorNg, Kim Choon
dc.contributor.authorShahzad, Muhammad Wakil
dc.contributor.authorBurhan, Muhammad
dc.contributor.authorOh, Seung Jin
dc.identifier.citationNg, K.C. et al., 2019. Approaches to Energy Efficiency in Air conditioning: Innovative processes and thermodynamics. Energy Procedia, 158, pp.1455–1460. Available at:
dc.description.abstractAir conditioning in buildings has transformed our human lives greatly with work efficiency in commercial buildings and improved lifestyle in all weather. However, these improvements are accompanied with the negative effects from the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), both directly via refrigerant emissions and indirectly through electricity generation by the burning of fossil fuels. Although there were significant improvements in the efficacy of chillers since 2000, the kW/Ron of chillers for cooling for electrically driven DCS have reached an asymptotic level of 0.85±0.03 kW/Rton for the tropics and a 20% higher for the hot and dry arid climate. The levelling-off phenomenon of chillers’ energy efficiency is attributed the improvements limits exploited from the efficacy of compressor and refrigerant technologies. Thus, an out-of-box solution, such as the decoupling of latent to sensible cooling in the dehumidification cum the indirect evaporative coolers (DH-IEC) to improve energy efficiency, It is projected that a quantum jump of 0.5 kWh/m3 or less is urgently needed for future sustainable cooling. In this paper, we adopted a top-down approach in evaluating the upper-bound energy savings of an economy if one were to employ the innovative DH-IEC cycle is assumed to be applied to the Singapore city state is highlighted with respect to the savings in the primary energy, emission of CO2 and the water savings of up to 40 % can be potentially achieved.
dc.publisherElsevier BV
dc.rightsThis is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
dc.subjectAir Conditioning
dc.titleApproaches to Energy Efficiency in Air conditioning: Innovative processes and thermodynamics
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalEnergy Procedia
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
kaust.personNg, Kim Choon
kaust.personShahzad, Muhammad Wakil
kaust.personBurhan, Muhammad
kaust.personOh, Seung Jin

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