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dc.contributor.authorMachado, Gustavo
dc.contributor.authorAlvarez, Julio
dc.contributor.authorBakka, Haakon Christopher
dc.contributor.authorPerez, Andres
dc.contributor.authorDonato, Lucas Edel
dc.contributor.authorde Ferreira Lima Júnior, Francisco Edilson
dc.contributor.authorAlves, Renato Vieira
dc.contributor.authorDel Rio Vilas, Victor Javier
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-09T14:02:22Z
dc.date.available2019-01-09T14:02:22Z
dc.date.issued2019-01-03
dc.identifier.citationMachado G, Alvarez J, Bakka HC, Perez A, Donato LE, et al. (2019) Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. BMC Infectious Diseases 19. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3564-0.
dc.identifier.issn1471-2334
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/s12879-018-3564-0
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/630781
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND:Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease of public health relevance in Brazil. To prioritize disease control measures, the Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde of Brazil's Ministry of Health (SVS/MH) uses retrospective human case counts from VL surveillance data to inform a municipality-based risk classification. In this study, we compared the underlying VL risk, using a spatiotemporal explicit Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM), with the risk classification currently in use by the Brazil's Ministry of Health. We aim to assess how well the current risk classes capture the underlying VL risk as modelled by the BHM. METHODS:Annual counts of human VL cases and the population at risk for all Brazil's 5564 municipalities between 2004 and 2014 were used to fit a relative risk BHM. We then computed the predicted counts and exceedence risk for each municipality and classified them into four categories to allow comparison with the four risk categories by the SVS/MH. RESULTS:Municipalities identified as high-risk by the model partially agreed with the current risk classification by the SVS/MH. Our results suggest that counts of VL cases may suffice as general indicators of the underlying risk, but can underestimate risks, especially in areas with intense transmission. CONCLUSION:According to our BHM the SVS/MH risk classification underestimated the risk in several municipalities with moderate to intense VL transmission. Newly identified high-risk areas should be further evaluated to identify potential risk factors and assess the needs for additional surveillance and mitigation efforts.
dc.description.sponsorshipAcknowledgements: We would like to thank Serviço de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde (SVS-MOH), Brasília, Brazil. Funding: This study was funded by the Academic Health Center Faculty Research Development Grant Program (FRD #16.36) and CVM-Department of Population Health and Pathobiology- North Carolina State University, Grant/Award Number: Startup fund. The funder had no role in the collation of the data, development of the conceptual framework, analysis of data, interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.urlhttps://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-018-3564-0
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectBrazil
dc.subjectVisceral leishmaniasis
dc.subjectBayesian
dc.subjectDisease Mapping
dc.subjectRisk Classification
dc.titleRevisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentComputer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division
dc.identifier.journalBMC Infectious Diseases
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC, 27607,USA.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avda Puerta de Hierro S/N, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionVISAVET Health Surveillance Center, Universidad Complutense, Avda Puerta de Hierro S/N, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN, 55108, USA.
dc.contributor.institutionSecretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde (SVS-MH), Brasília, Brazil.
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Veterinary Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7A, UK.
kaust.personBakka, Haakon Christopher
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546259
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546250.v1
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546238
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546229
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546226
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546220.v1
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546211
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4354736.v1
dc.relation.issupplementedbyDOI:10.6084/m9.figshare.7546202.v1
refterms.dateFOA2019-01-10T06:48:40Z
display.relations<b>Is Supplemented By:</b><br/> <ul><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 9: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546259. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546259" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546259</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664363" >10754/664363</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 8: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546250.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546250.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546250.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664364" >10754/664364</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 7: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546238. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546238" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546238</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664365" >10754/664365</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 6: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546229. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546229" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546229</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664366" >10754/664366</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 5: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546226. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546226" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546226</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664367" >10754/664367</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 4: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546220.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546220.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546220.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664368" >10754/664368</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Additional file 3: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546211. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546211" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546211</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664369" >10754/664369</a></a></li><li><i>[Dataset]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., Júnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.C.4354736.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4354736.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4354736.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/664415" >10754/664415</a></a></li><li><i>[Data File]</i> <br/> Machado, G., Alvarez, J., Bakka, H., Perez, A., Donato, L., JĂşnior, F. F. L., Alves, R., &amp; Vilas, V. R. (2019). <i>Additional file 2: of Revisiting area risk classification of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil</i>. figshare. https://doi.org/10.6084/M9.FIGSHARE.7546202.V1. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.7546202.v1" >10.6084/m9.figshare.7546202.v1</a> Handle: <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/10754/668322" >10754/668322</a></a></li></ul>
dc.date.published-online2019-01-03
dc.date.published-print2019-12


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This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.