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dc.contributor.authorShahzad, Muhammad Wakil
dc.contributor.authorBurhan, Muhammad
dc.contributor.authorNg, Kim Choom
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-09T14:01:31Z
dc.date.available2019-01-09T14:01:31Z
dc.date.issued2019-01-04
dc.identifier.citationShahzad MW, Burhan M, Ng KC (2019) A standard primary energy approach for comparing desalination processes. npj Clean Water 2. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41545-018-0028-4.
dc.identifier.issn2059-7037
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41545-018-0028-4
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/630776
dc.description.abstractConsidering different grades of energy as equivalent in the desalination industry could have negative economic and environmental consequences. Whereas this approach will suffice for the comparison of same energy input processes, omitting the grade of energy when comparing diverse technologies may lead to incorrect conclusions and, resultantly, inefficient installations. Here, a standard primary energy-based thermodynamic framework is presented that addresses the energy efficacy of assorted desalination processes. Example calculations show that a thermal desalination plant integrated with a power plant consumes 2–3% of input standard primary energy. We also propose a standard universal performance ratio methodology to provide a level playing field for the comparison of desalination processes; this suggest that the majority of desalination processes are operating far from the sustainable zone, with only ~10–13% at the ideal or thermodynamic limit. A proposed roadmap shows that attaining an efficacy level of up to 25–30% of the thermodynamic limit is crucial for achieving the 2030 sustainability development goals for seawater desalination, which will require a technological shift in the capability of dissolved salts separation processes.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like acknowledge KAUST for hybrid MEDAD cycle experiment pilot grants.
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41545-018-0028-4
dc.rightsThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleA standard primary energy approach for comparing desalination processes
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.identifier.journalnpj Clean Water
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
kaust.personShahzad, Muhammad Wakil
kaust.personBurhan, Muhammad
kaust.personNg, Kim Choom
refterms.dateFOA2019-01-10T07:20:58Z


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This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.