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dc.contributor.authorHadaidi, Ghaida A.
dc.contributor.authorZiegler, Maren
dc.contributor.authorShore-Maggio, Amanda
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Thor
dc.contributor.authorAeby, Greta
dc.contributor.authorVoolstra, Christian R.
dc.identifier.citationHadaidi G, Ziegler M, Shore-Maggio A, Jensen T, Aeby G, et al. (2018) Ecological and molecular characterization of a coral black band disease outbreak in the Red Sea during a bleaching event. PeerJ 6: e5169. Available:
dc.description.abstractBlack Band Disease (BBD) is a widely distributed and destructive coral disease that has been studied on a global scale, but baseline data on coral diseases is missing from many areas of the Arabian Seas. Here we report on the broad distribution and prevalence of BBD in the Red Sea in addition to documenting a bleaching-associated outbreak of BBD with subsequent microbial community characterization of BBD microbial mats at this reef site in the southern central Red Sea. Coral colonies with BBD were found at roughly a third of our 22 survey sites with an overall prevalence of 0.04%. Nine coral genera were infected including Astreopora, Coelastrea, Dipsastraea, Gardineroseris, Goniopora, Montipora, Pavona, Platygyra, and Psammocora. For a southern central Red Sea outbreak site, overall prevalence was 40 times higher than baseline (1.7%). Differential susceptibility to BBD was apparent among coral genera with Dipsastraea (prevalence 6.1%), having more diseased colonies than was expected based on its abundance within transects. Analysis of the microbial community associated with the BBD mat showed that it is dominated by a consortium of cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. We detected the three main indicators for BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (SOB)), with high similarity to BBD-associated microbes found worldwide. More specifically, the microbial consortium of BBD-diseased coral colonies in the Red Sea consisted of Oscillatoria sp. (cyanobacteria), Desulfovibrio sp. (SRB), and Arcobacter sp. (SOB). Given the similarity of associated bacteria worldwide, our data suggest that BBD represents a global coral disease with predictable etiology. Furthermore, we provide a baseline assessment of BBD disease prevalence in the Red Sea, a still understudied region.
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to thank the KAUST Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab (CMOR) for their assistance and support in field operations and the KAUST Bioscience Core Lab (BCL) for sequencing. We wish to thank Craig Michell (KAUST) for sequence library preparation and Nikolaos Zarokanellos (KAUST) for help with
dc.rightsThis is an open access article.
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dc.subjectCoral reef
dc.subjectCoral Bleaching
dc.subjectCoral Disease
dc.subjectRed Sea
dc.titleEcological and molecular characterization of a coral black band disease outbreak in the Red Sea during a bleaching event
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.contributor.departmentMarine Science Program
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET), University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, United States of America
dc.contributor.institutionHawai’i Institute of Marine Biology, Kāne’ohe, HI, United States of America
kaust.personHadaidi, Ghaida Ali Hassan
kaust.personZiegler, Maren
kaust.personJensen, Thor
kaust.personVoolstra, Christian R.
display.relations<b>Is Supplemented By:</b><br/> <ul><li><i>[Bioproject]</i> <br/> Title: Black Band Disease Red Sea CoralsPublication Date: 2018-02-28. bioproject: <a href="" >PRJNA436216</a> Handle: <a href="" >10754/666712</a></a></li></ul>

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